Advances in fungi classifications in 2007-2020


Yu. Holiachuk , H. Kosylovych

The classification, taxonomy, and phylogeny of fungi and fungus-like organisms are research areas with rapid and significant progress over the past few decades. Until the 90s of the last century, all fungi and fungus-like organisms belonged to one division (kingdom) Fungi, consisting of three classes of lower fungi and three classes of higher fungi. The rapid development of sciences, especially methods and potentialities of molecular biology and biochemistry, led to the cardinal revision of relationships and phylogeny division Fungi members. The distribution of Fungi’s members in three kingdoms (Fungi, Protozoa, and Chromista) resulted from many studies. The fungi’s taxonomy began to be widely used such taxa as subkingdom, phylum, subphylum. Moreover, in 2007 Hibbett et al. (2007) proposed the classification of kingdom Fungi which consisted of seven phyla and four subphyla incertae sedis (phylum not assigned). Subsequent studies of scientists from all over the world led to significant enlargement of the proposed classification. Last classifications of kingdom Fungi presents high-level systems, consisting of eighteen phyla and seventy six classes by Tedersoo et al. (2018) or nineteen phyla and seventy seventy-nine classes by Wijayawardene et al. (2020). In this article, we present an overview of the last existing classifications of kingdom Fungi, proposed by Hibbett et al. (2007), by Tedersoo et al. (2018), and by Wijayawardene et al. (2020).

Keywords: fungi, classification, kingdom, subkingdom, phylum, class


Ariyawansa, H. A., Hyde, K. D., Jayasiri, S. C. et al. (2015). Fungal diversity notes 111-252 – taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa. Fungal Diversity, 75, 27-274.

Bauer, R., Garnica, S., Oberwinkler, F., Riess, K., Weiß, M., & Begerow, D. (2015). Entorrhizomycota: A New Fungal Phylum Reveals New Perspectives on the Evolution of Fungi. PLoS ONE, 10 (7): e0128183.  

Cavalier-Smith, T. (2007). A revised six-kingdom system of life. Biological Reviews, 73 (3), 203–66.

Cavalier-Smith, T. (2018a). Kingdom Chromista and its eight phyla: a new synthesis emphasising periplastid protein targeting, cytoskeletal and periplastid evolution, and ancient divergences. Protoplasma, 255, 297–357.

Cavalier-Smith, T., Chao, E.E. & Lewis, R. (2018b). Multigene phylogeny and cell evolution of chromist infrakingdom Rhizaria: contrasting cell organization of sister phyla Cercozoa and Retaria. Protoplasm, 255, 1517–1574.

Doweld, A. B. (2014). Retrieved from

Gryganskyi, A. P., Humber, R. A., Smith M. E. et al. (2012). Molecular phylogeny of the Entomophthoromycota. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 65 (2), 682-694.

Hawksworth, D. L.; Kirk, P. M.; Sutton, B. C. & Pegler, D. N. (1995). Ainsworth & Bisby’s dictionary of the fungi. 8.ed. Oxon, UK, CAB International, 650 p.

Hibbett, D. S., Binder, M., Bischoff, J. F., et al. (2007). A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi. Mycological research, 111, 509-547.

Hyde, K. D., Jones, E. B. G., Liu, J. K. et al. (2013). Families of Dothideomycetes. Fungal Diversity, 63, 1-313.

Jaklitsch, W. M., Checa, J., Blanco, M. N. et al. (2018). A preliminary account of the Cucurbitariaceae. Studies in Mycology, 90, 71–118.

James, T. Y., Letcher, P. M., Longcore, J. E., Mozley-Standridge, S. E. et al. (2006). A molecular phylogeny of the flagellated fungi (Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota). Mycologia, 98 (6), 860-871.

Karatygin, I. V. (1999). Problems in the macrosystematics of fungi. Mycology and Phytopathology, 33 (3), 150-165 (in Russian).

Kirk, P. M., Cannon, P. F., Minter, D. W., & Stalpers, J. A. (2008). Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi. 10th Edition. CABI Europe – UK, 771 p.

Kirk, P. M., Stalpers, J. A., Braun, U., Crous, P. W. et al. (2013). A withoutprejudice list of generic names of fungi for protection under the international code of nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. IMA Fungus, 4, 381-443. Kusakin, O. G., & Drozdov A. L. (1994). Phylema of the living beings. Part 1. St. Petersburg, 272 p. (in Russian).

Kusakin, O. G., & Drozdov A. L. (1998). Phylema of the living beings. Part 2. St. Petersburg, 357 p. (in Russian).

Li, G. J., Hyde, K. D., Zhao, R. L. et al. (2016). Fungal diversity notes 253-366: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa. Fungal Diversity, 78, 1-237.

Manamgoda, D. S., Rossman, A. Y., Castlebury, L. A. et al. (2014). The genus Bipolaris. Studies in Mycology, 79, 221-288. Margulis, L., & Schwartz, K. V. (1997). Five Kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth. New York, 544 p.

Marin-Felix, Y., Groenewald, J. Z., Cai, al. (2017). Genera of phytopathogenic fungi: GOPHY 1. Studies in Mycology, 86, 99-216. Marin-Felix, Y., Hernandez-Restrepo, M., Wingfield, M. J. et al. (2019). Genera of phytopathogenic fungi: GOPHY 2. Studies in Mycology, 92, 47-133.

Mishra, B., Choi, Y. J. & Thines, M. (2018). Phylogenomics of Bartheletia paradoxa reveals its basal position in Agaricomycotina and that the early evolutionary history of basidiomycetes was rapid and probably not strictly bifurcating. Mycological Progress, 17, 333–341.

Nguyen, H. D. T., Chabot D., Hirooka, Y., Roberson, R. W. & Seifert, K. A. (2015). Basidioascus undulatus: genome, origins, and sexuality. IMA Fungus, 6 (1), 215–231.

Outline of Fungi:

Phillips, A. J. L., Alves, A., Abdollahzadeh, J. et al. (2013). The Botryosphaeriaceae: genera and species known from culture. Studies in Mycology, 76 (1), 51-167.

Phookamsak, R., Liu, J.-K., McKenzie E. H. C. et al. (2014). Revision of Phaeosphaeriaceae. Fungal Diversity, 68 (1), 159-238.

Research News. (2018). IMA Fungus, 9, A68–A70.

Ruggiero, M. A., Gordon, D. P., Orrell, T. M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R. C., et al. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248.

Sharma, R., Polkade, A. V., & Shouche, Y. S. (2015). ‘Species concept’ in microbial taxonomy and systematics. Current science, 108 (10), 1804-1814, from

Slippers, B., Boissin, E., Phillips, A. J. L. et al. (2013). Phylogenetic lineages in the Botryosphaeriales: a systematic and evolutionary framework. Studies in Mycology, 76 (1), 31-49.

Spatafora, J. W., Chang, Y., Benny, G. L. et al. (2016). A phylum-level phylogenetic classification of zygomycete fungi based on genome-scale data. Mycologia, 108 (5), 1028-1046.

Takhtadzhian A. L. (Editor-in-chief) (1991). The world of plant. T. 2. Fungi. Moscow, 475 p. (in Russian).

Tedersoo, L., Sánchez-Ramírez, S., Kõljalg, U. et al. (2018). High-level classification of the Fungi and a tool for evolutionary ecological analyses. Fungal Diversity, 90, 135–159. The Catalogue of Life:

Valenzuela-Lopez, N., Cano-Lira, J. F., Guarro, J. et al. (2018). Coelomycetous Dothideomycetes with emphasis on the families Cucurbitariaceae and Didymellaceae. Studies in Mycology, 90, 1-69.

Videira, S. I. R., Groenewald, J. Z., Nakashima, C., Braun, U., Barreto, R. W., de Wit, P. J. G. M., & Crous, P. W. (2017). Mycosphaerellaceae – Chaos or clarity? Studies in Mycology, 87, 257-421.

Voglmayr, H., Fournier, J., & Jaklitsch W. M. (2019). Two new classes of Ascomycota: Xylobotryomycetes and Candelariomycetes. Persoonia, 42 (1), 36-49.

Wijayawardene, D. N. N, McKenzie, E. H. C., & Hyde, K. D. (2012). Towards incorporating anamorphic fungi in a natural classification – checklist and notes  for 2011. Mycosphere, 3 (2), 157-228.

Wijayawardene, N. N., Hyde, K. D., Al-Ani, L. K. T., et al. (2020). Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa. Mycosphere 11(1), 1060–1456.

Wijayawardene, N. N., Hyde, K. D., Lumbsch, H. T., Liu, J. K. et al. (2018a). Outline of Ascomycota: 2017. Fungal Diversity, 88, 167–263. Wijayawardene, N. N., Hyde, K. D., Rajeshkumar K. C. et al. (2017). Notes for genera: Ascomycota. Fungal Diversity, 86 (1), 1-594. Wijayawardene, N. N., Paw?owska, J., Letcher, P. M., Kirk, P. M. et al. (2018b). Notes for genera: basal clades of Fungi (including Aphelidiomycota, Basidiobolomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Caulochytriomycota, Chytridiomycota, Entomophthoromycota, Glomeromycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Olpidiomycota, Rozellomycota and Zoopagomycota). Fungal Diversity, 92, 43–129. Woudenberg, J. H. C., Groenewald, J. Z., Binder, M., & Crous P. W. (2013). Alternaria redefined. Studies in Mycology, 75, 171-212.

Zhang, Y., Schoch, C. L., Fournier, J. et al. (2009). Multi-locus phylogeny of Pleosporales: a taxonomic, ecological and evolutionary re-evaluation. Studies in Mycology, 64, 85-102.

Share this article