Agricultural use of peat bog soils and changes in water duty to floodplains of rivers of the Left-Bank Forest-Steppe

Abstract

V.F. Kaminsky, N.I. Shtakal, L.P. Kolomiets, V.N. Shtakal

Goal–To establish regularity of transformation of drained peat bog soils,  also changes in the water duty to floodplains in the process of agricultural use. Determine the ways of their rational use in the conditions of the Left-Bank Forest-Steppe.
 Research methods. General scientific and special,  empirical and theoretical,  historical – for a retrospective synthesis of scientific achievements of domestic and foreign scientists on the study of the formation of indicators of fertility and productivity of drained soils; analytical – for analysis of conditions and processes of changing fertility indicators; laboratory – for determination of agrochemical and water-physical properties of soil; field – to establish the botanical composition of the grass stand,  accumulation of the amount of root and crop residues in the soil,  to establish the intensity of mineralization of organic matter and crop productivity; mathematical statistics – to assess the reliability of the research results.  Many years of experience summarized and scientific estimates of the transformation of drained peat bog soils with long-term agricultural use are presented. It has been established that over 80 years of use of these soils in agricultural production,  peat deposits wear amounted to 100 cm (in the early years,  an annual decrease in peat depth was 1, 63,  subsequent – 1, 45,  and the last – 0, 88 cm). Decrease the depth of the peat bed also occurs due to their compaction.  Qualitative and quantitative changes in peat soils under the influence of drainage and long-term agricultural use we researched. We have established the patterns and directions of soil processes depending on the influence of the duration of development of peat soils.  We also identified scientific and methodological approaches to assessing the conditions and factors affecting the formation of fertility and productivity of drained soils. We have analyzed existing approaches to rationalizing nature management,  taking into account the characteristics of the economic development of drained lands. Regularities and directions of transformation of drained peat bog soils under the influence of long-term agricultural use are justified. We have identified trends in the indicators of fertility and productivity of drained peat bog soils. We have implemented a systematic approach to the spatiotemporal study of the soil potential of drained soils in order to rationalize nature management in the risky farming zone. We also found that the high-productivity use of organogenic soils provides for the functioning of agrophytocenoses from perennial crops with the aim of creating conservation agrolandscapes and improving the ecological balance in the floodplains of small rivers.
 
 Key words: Peat soils; Draining; Mineralization; Perennial herbs; Productivity; Agricultural use 

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