Agrobiological characteristics of spelt wheat and intermediate wheatgrass in the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine


V. P. Karpenko, S. P. Poltoretskyi, V. V. Liubych, D. M. Adamenko, I. S. Kravets, R. M. Prytuliak

Estimation of spelt wheat and the species of intermediate wheatgrass by the main agrobiological indicators (calendar dates of the beginning of the main phases of plant development, plant height dynamics, dry mass accumulation, grain yield and protein content) compared to soft wheat was done. The index of stability of grain yield formation was determined. It was found that the main phases of development in spelt wheat occurred on average 10–15 days later than in soft wheat. Plants of intermediate wheatgrass in the first year of cultivation had slower growth. The main phases of development in plants of intermediate wheatgrass of the second and third year of growth occurred almost in the same time with soft wheat. It was established that spelt wheat and intermediate wheatgrass were significantly superior to soft wheat in plant height. In the earing phase, the height of these plants was on average more than 100 cm, which had to be taken into account when growing these crops. It varied from 25 to 42 cm in spelt wheat and from 29 to 57 cm in intermediate wheatgrass during the stem elongation phase depending on the weather conditions of the research year. This indicator ranged from 107 to 113 cm and from 96 to 117 cm, respectively, in the earing phase, and from 137 to 168 cm and from 107 to 196 cm in the phase of milk ripeness of grain. Plants of spelt wheat and intermediate wheatgrass had a high stability index of the formation of dry matter and grain yield. It should be noted that intermediate wheatgrass formed a significant vegetative mass even in the earing phase. The vegetative mass in spelt wheat was formed during the earing period – full ripeness of grain. These crops (spelt wheat – 22.1 ± 0.4, intermediate wheatgrass – 22.4–24.6 ± 0.2–0.5) were significantly superior to soft wheat (12.1 ± 0.5) by the content of protein in grain, so it was recommended to involve them in the selection programs to create species with high productivity. However, spelt wheat (5.58 ± 0.13) was less and intermediate wheatgrass (0.98–1.22 ± 0.14–0.18) was the most inferior to soft wheat (8.03 ± 0.27) in terms of grain yield.

Keywords: Spelt wheat; intermediate wheatgrass; plant height; plant development phases; dry mass; yield; protein


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