Analysis of potato source material-main stage of selection work
The aim of the research was to analyze the source material nursery (hybridization nursery) in order to identify and involve in the selection the most suitable cultivars of potatoes and interspecific hybrids created on the basis of phylogenetically remote species. The intention was to create new potato varieties in relation to soil and climatic conditions of Ukrainian Western Forest-Steppe. It is established that the source material, created on the basis of phylogenetically distant species, is similar to cultivars in appearance of the bush and its morphological features. However, interspecific hybrids are inferior to breeding varieties in productivity and average tuber weight. They have longer stolons, more stems-from 6 to 13 pcs and relatively longer growing season, which corresponds to the group of late-maturing varieties of potatoes. The length of stolons in interspecific hybrids that we studied ranged from 17 to 24 cm, the growing season-from 120 to 145 days. Interspecific hybrids are characterized by high marketability of tubers, higher starch content, show high resistance of vegetative mass against late blight. Therefore, the introgression of the genes of these traits in newly created potato varieties is of practical importance for potato breeding. Regarding varieties in the hybridization nursery, we should pay attention to the varieties of potatoes created in the Western region of Ukraine and the varieties of selection of the Scientific Research Center for Potato and Vegetable Growing of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. The variety of selection of the Institute of Potato NAAS-Shchedryk deserves special attention. High resistance to late blight in combination with high yields showed varieties Kniahynia, Myroslava, Lehenda, Oksamyt-99, Krinitsa, Skarb, Padarunok, Talisman, Brihantina, Harant, Atlant, Zakhidna, Svaliavska and others.