Biochemical and molecular-genetic markers of adaptability and quality of genotypes in cultural and wild cereal plants


V. V. Moskalets, A. H. Vovkohon, M. M. Kliuchevych, T. Z. Moskalets, A. O. Sliusarenko, V. V. Liubych, A. T. Martyniuk, O. S. Pushka, I. M. Pushka, V. I. Nevlad

We proved that plants A. cylindrica, T. spelta, T. turgidum, T. sphaerococcum, T. vavilovii, T. persicum, T. araraticum, T. aestivum var. barbarossa, and T. aestivum var. ferrugineum, owning high drought resistance, have a stable high productive potential and quality indicators of grain (protein, gluten, dietary fiber content), that allows use them in the production of products functional purpose (bakery, confectionery, sour-dairy products, including yoghurts, and dessert cheese). Implementation mechanisms are disclosed adaptive potential plants of cultural and wild cereals by biochemical (protein content, gluten, starch in seeds, the presence of gliadin proteins (Glі-1В1, Glі-6D2, Glі-6D3, Glі-6В2), molecular-genetic markers (allele genes of drought resistance – Dreb А1, Dreb В1, Dreb D1; glutenins Glu-D1) and morphological-ontogenetic criteria. For the first time for successful address introduction cultural and wild cereal plants suggested by the criteria of mechanisms drought resistance to rank plants by potential ecological valence regarding the unfavorable hydrothermal regime. Differentiation of genotypes based on elements of plant strategies: features of their ontogeny, morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical parameters, biochemical and molecular-genetic markers. In this connection, genotypes of cultural and wild cereal plants in conditions in sіtu by sensitivity on the effect of hydrothermal stress are divided into xerophytic, mesophytic and intermediate – xerophytic-mesophytic types of development. That's it ranking underlying on the principles of autecological approach, manifestation of a multi-level system of answers plant organisms at different levels of integration, as adaptive reactions. In particular, mechanisms such as: functional stability (stipulated structural and functional features of plants), morphological tolerance (the ability of plants to resist damage without reducing performance), ontogenetic evasion (stability due to features ontogenetic development), ecological plasticity of the organism and plant populations as a whole. The obtained results of the biochemical and molecular genetic markers of adaptability and quality indicators of genotypes cultural (wheat, triticale, rye) and wild cereals (A. cylindrica, T. spelta, T. turgidum and others) are important in breeding and successive targeted use in the food industry are given.
Keywords: Wheat species; Rye; Amphidiploids; Adaptive properties; Alleles of genes Dreb 1; Glu-D1; Gliadin-proteins Glі; Grain quality indicators
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