Black point in spring durum wheat under different environmental conditions
L.P. Khlebova, N.V. Barysheva, A.I. Ziborov, I.A. Brumberg
The study of cereal seed mycocenosis is relevant in solving problems determining the production of healthy, environmentally friendly agricultural products. Black point of wheat grain is a disorder characterised by a brown-black discolouration at the embryo end of the kernel. It is found in all regions of durum wheat cultivation and it results in significant economic loss annually. We studied seven varieties of spring durum wheat that were grown in 2014-2019. The weather conditions of the growing season have a significant impact on the development of black point of durum wheat in the forest-steppe zone of the Altai Territory of Russia (South-Western Siberia). The defeat of seeds by a black point varied from 2.3% to 28.0% on average for varieties. To obtain high-quality grain that is not affected by this disease, phytosanitary measures are required that reduce the infection of seeds with phytopathogens and limit the development of the disease during the growing season. Analysis of the pathogenic composition of fungal microorganisms in seeds of spring durum wheat, formed in different vegetations, revealed the presence of representatives of Fusarium, Alternaria, Helminthosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillum with a predominance of the first 3 genera. We found the negative effect of Fusarium fungi on seed germination. In the field conditions of the forest-steppe of the Altai Territory, the development of a black point in durum wheat grain is determined by the colonization of seeds with Bipolaris sorokiniana. No correlation was found between the incidence of black point and the infection of seeds by Fusarium and Alternaria.
Keywords: Durum wheat; Black point; Disease Development Index (DDI); Pathogenic fungi; Genotype; Environmental conditions
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