Black point in spring durum wheat under different environmental conditions

Abstract

L.P. Khlebova, N.V. Barysheva, A.I. Ziborov, I.A. Brumberg

The study of cereal seed mycocenosis is relevant in solving problems determining the production of healthy, environmentally friendly agricultural products. Black point of wheat grain is a disorder characterised by a brown-black discolouration at the embryo end of the kernel. It is found in all regions of durum wheat cultivation and it results in significant economic loss annually. We studied seven varieties of spring durum wheat that were grown in 2014-2019. The weather conditions of the growing season have a significant impact on the development of black point of durum wheat in the forest-steppe zone of the Altai Territory of Russia (South-Western Siberia). The defeat of seeds by a black point varied from 2.3% to 28.0% on average for varieties. To obtain high-quality grain that is not affected by this disease, phytosanitary measures are required that reduce the infection of seeds with phytopathogens and limit the development of the disease during the growing season. Analysis of the pathogenic composition of fungal microorganisms in seeds of spring durum wheat, formed in different vegetations, revealed the presence of representatives of Fusarium, Alternaria, Helminthosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillum with a predominance of the first 3 genera. We found the negative effect of Fusarium fungi on seed germination. In the field conditions of the forest-steppe of the Altai Territory, the development of a black point in durum wheat grain is determined by the colonization of seeds with Bipolaris sorokiniana. No correlation was found between the incidence of black point and the infection of seeds by Fusarium and Alternaria.
Keywords: Durum wheat; Black point; Disease Development Index (DDI); Pathogenic fungi; Genotype; Environmental conditions
References
Barysheva, N. V., Rozova, M. A., Ziborov, A. I., Khlebova, L. P., & Kraynov, A. P. (2016). Durum wheat resistance to black point. Acta Biologica Sibirica, 2(4), 45-51. https://doi.org/10.14258/abs.v2i4.1704 (In Russian)
Barysheva, N. V., Rozova, M. A., Ziborov, A. I., Khlebova, L. P., & Kraynov, A. P. (2018). Evaluation of durum wheat collection in terms of black-point affection. Bulletin of Altai State Agricultural University, 1, 12-18. (In Russian)
Chulkina, V. A., Toropova, E. Yu., Stecov, G. Ya. (2010). Integrirovannaya zashchita rastenij: fitosanitarnaya optimizaciya agroekosistem (terminy i opredeleniya). Moscow. Kolos. (In Russian)
Clarke, M. P., Gooding, M. J., & Jones, S. A. (2004). The effects of irrigation, nitrogen fertilizer and grain size on Hagberg falling number, spesific weight and black point of winter wheat. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84, 227-236.
Conner, R. L. (1987). Influence of irrigation timing on black point incidence of soft white spring wheat. Can. J. Plant Pathol., 9, 301-306.
Conner, R. L. (1989). Influence of irrigation and precipitation on incidence of black point in soft spring wheat. Can. J. Plant Pathology, 11, 388-392.
Conner, R. L., Hwang, S. F., & Stevens, R. R. (1996). Fusarium proliferatum: a new causal agent of black point in wheat. Can. J. Plant Pathology, 18, 419-423.
Dexter, J., & Matsuo, R. R. (1982). Effect of smudge and black point, mildewed kernels, and ergot on durum wheat quality. Cereal Chem, 59(1), 63-69.
El-Helaly, A. F. (1947). The black-point disease of wheat. Phytopathology, 37(11), 773-780.
Fernandez, M. R., Clarke, J. M., DePauw, R. M., Irvine, R. B., & Knox, R. E. (1994). Black point and red smudge in irrigated durum wheat in southern Saskatchewan in 1990-1992. Can. J. Plant Pathology, 16, 221-227.
Gannibal, F. B. (2014). Alternaria disease of grain – modern view of the problem. Zashchita i karantin rastenij, 6, 11-15. (In Russian)
Gaponov, S. N., Popova, V. M., Shutareva, G. I., Tsvetva, N. M., Parshikova, T. M., & Shchukin, S. A. (2016). The problem of «glume mold» and specific characteristic of cultivation technology of spring durum wheat. Agrarian Reporter of South-East, 1-2, 27-28.
Glinushkin, A. P., Sokolov, M. S., & Toropova, E. Yu. (2016). Fitosanitarnye i gigienicheskie trebovaniya k zdorovoj pochve. Moskva, «Izdatel'stvo Agrorus». (In Russian)
Graham, R. D., & Welch, R. M. (2000). Plant food micronutrient composition and human nutrition. Commun. Soil. Sci. Plant Anal., 31, 1627-1640.
Hudec, K. (2007). Influence of harvest date and geographical location on kernel symptoms, fungal infestation and embryo viability of malting barley. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 113, 125-132.
Khulbe, D., Srinivas, P., & Agarwal, V. K. (2011). Diversity of black point symptoms and associated fungi in wheat and seed quality. Ann. Pl. Protec. Sci., 19 (2), 383-387.
Kirichenko, A. A. (2008). Chernota zarodysha yarovoy pshenitsy i ogranichenie ee razvitiya v usloviyakh lesostepi Priobya. Thesis, Kurgan. (In Russian)
Koyshybaev, M., Shamanin, V. P., & Morgunov, A. I. (2014). Skrining pshenitsy na ustoychivost k osnovnym boleznyam: metodicheskie ukazaniya. FAO-SEK: Ankara. (In Russian)
Kumar, J., Schafer, P., Huckelhoven, R., Langen, G., Baltruschat, H., Stein, E., Nagarajan, S., & Kogel K. H. (2002). Bipolaris sorokiniana, a cereal pathogen of global concern: Cytological and molecular approaches towards better control. Molecular Plant Pathology, 3, 185-195.
Lehmensiek, A., Campbell, A. W., Williamson, P. M., Michalowitz, M., Sutherland, M. W., & Daggard, G. E. (2004). QTL’s for black point resistance in wheat and the identification of potential markers for use in breeding programs. Plant Breeding, 123, 410-416.
Liu, R. H. (2007). Whole grain phytochemicasl and health. J. Cerial Sci., 46, 207-219.
Mak, Y., Willows, R. D., Roberts, T. H., Wrigley, C. W., Sharp, P. J., & Coptland, L. (2006). Black point is associated with reduced levels of stress, disease- and defence-related proteins in wheat grain. Molecular Plant Pathology, 7(3), 177-189.
McKevith, B. (2004). Nutritional aspects of cereals. Nutr. Bull., 29, 111-142.
Moschini, R. C., Sisterna, M. N., & Carmona, M. A. (2006). Modelling of wheat black point incidence based on meteorological variables in the southern Argentinean Pampas region. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 57, 1151-1156.
Patel, D. J., & Minipara, D. B. (2016). Assessment of fungi associated with black point disease of wheat and genetic variation amongst the most dominantly isolated fungus [Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Kessl.]. The Bioscan, 11(4), 2105-2110.
Rees, R. G., Martin, D. J., & Law, D. P. (1984). Black point in bread wheat. Effects on quality and germination and fungal associations. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 127, 601-605.
Sissons, M., Abecassis, J., Marchylo, B., & Carcea, M. (2012). Durum wheat: ?hemistry and technology, 2nd ed. AACC International.
Sisterna, M. N., & Sarandon, S. J. (2005). Preliminary studies on the natural incidence of wheat black point under different fertilization levels and tillage systems in Argentina. Plant Pathology Journal, 4, 26-28.
Statler, G. D., Kiesling, R. L., & Busch, R. H. (1975). Inheritance of black point resistance in durum wheat. Phytopathology, 65, 627-629.
Toklu, F., Akgül, D. S., Biçici, M., & Karaköy, T. (2008). The relationship between black point and fungi species and effects of black point on seed germination properties in bread wheat. Turk J Agric For, 32, 267-272.
Toropova, E. Yu., & Kirichenko, A. A. (2012). Fitosanitarnyj ekologicheskij monitoring. Novosibirsk, Izdatel'stvo NGAU. (In Russian)
Toropova, E. Yu., Chulkina, V. A., & Stetsov, G. Ya. (2012). Plant epidemiology. Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk State Agricultural University.
Vasilchuk, N. S. (2001). Durum wheat breeding. Saratov. (In Russian)
Wang, H., Fernandez, M. R., Clark, F. R. et al. (2002). Effects of foliar fungicides on kernel black point of wheat in southern Saskatchewan. Can. J. Pathology, 24, 287-293.
Williamson, P. (1997). Black point of wheat: in vitro symptoms, enzymes involved and association with Alternaria alternanta. Austral. J. Agric. Res., 48, 13-19.

Share this article