Clinical and pathomorphological characteristics of spontaneous neoplasia of the dairy gland in dogs
The article deals with the data of clinical examination of 127 females with neoplasia of the mammary gland (MG) and the results of cytological examination of tumors at the preoperative stage and their pathologist verification after mastectomy. In the primary examination of animals, clinical signs characteristic of breast tumors are found in 102 (80.3%) dogs. According to the criteria of the international clinical TNM classification, in 44 (43.14%) females, I stage of development of the tumor process was established, in 25 (24,51%) - II, in 29 (28,43%) - ІІІ and 4 (3,92 %) - IV stage of tumors. In 25 (19.7%) of 127 dogs, the signs of neoplasia were fuzzy since symptoms of fibrocystic disease were at the forefront. According to the results of the histological searches, 88 or 69.3% of the animals were diagnosed with neoplasia of malignant nature, 14 or 11.02% were benign tumors, and in 25 or 19.7% of cases, dysplasia was diagnosed. It was also established that 74 (84.1%) episodes of MG tumors were epithelial, and 28 (15.9%) of other origins. Among malignant neoplasms, the most commonly reported were simple carcinoma, which were 27 (21.26%), complex carcinoma - 26 (20.47%), non-infiltrative carcinoma in situ 18 (14,17%), and rarely was found carcinomas of particular types, namely 3 (2.36%), sarcoma - 10 (7.87%), carcinosarcoma - 4 (3.15%). Benign tumors are represented by fibroadenoma (7.87%) and simple adenoma (3.15%). For localization of the primary lesion, in 53 (60.2%) of the studied tumors, duct cancer was recorded; in 21 (23.9%) cases, the primary cells were detected in the lobes and, respectively, 14 (15.9%) lesions captured both the lobules and the ducts. The results of retrospective searches of dogs diagnosed with fibro-cystic disease have shown that in over 40% of these animals, the proliferative form of mastopathy has been verified, as well as signs of its transformation and microfocus tumor growth, which may indicate the direct involvement of this disease in carcinogenesis. According to the results of a comparative analysis of clinical stages and histological types of spontaneous breast tumors in females, it has been found that the magnitude of the tumor and the degree of its malignancy are interrelated, as a tendency is observed, in which, along with the growth of the T index, which according to the clinical TNM classification of the tumor reflects its size, the number of cases of neoplastic neoplasms that are malignant is increasing.