Comparative analysis of the criteria for goat milk assessment in Ukraine and France
The safety and quality of raw milk in Ukraine remained the biggest problem in the retooling of dairy enterprises by the newest processing lines and modern quality control systems. This research aimed to scientifically substantiate the requirements of the Ukrainian standard for goat milk, especially for indicators of acidity, density, somatic cell count, and bacterial contamination. This requires conducting a comparative analysis of the criteria for assessing the safety and quality of goat milk in Ukraine and abroad to harmonize with the relevant legal documents of the European Union; to conduct monitoring studies on the quality and safety of goat milk in France and Ukraine. The monitoring of indices of goat milk in Ukraine was conducted compared to the similar ones in the laboratory of milk LILCO (Laboratoire Interprofessionnel Laitiere du Centre Ouest - Interprofessional milk laboratory of center and west), Surgères, France. Statistical data of goat milk analyses by seasons were obtained in the laboratory LILCO. Samples of goat milk in Ukraine were taken from farms of Dnipropetrovs’k oblast, Ukraine. The most fat and protein content in goat milk were fixed during winter as in Ukraine also in LILCO, France, significant differences were determined concerning other seasons.
It was found that the existing standard does not meet the international requirements for goat milk based on the leading indicators (bacterial contamination, somatic cells, acidity, and density). The ineffectiveness of the criteria of density and acidity for goat milk assessment was substantiated because of their insignificance. It was proposed to eliminate the requirements for the density and acidity of goat milk from “Goat's milk. Raw. Specifications: DSTU 7006: 2009", to reduce the requirements for the fat and protein content, and to meet the requirements for the somatic cell count and bacterial contamination following European standards.