Content Of Triterpene Saponins And Phenolics Compounds In Leaves Of In Vitro Beta Vulgaris L. Genotypes


O. L. Klyachenko, A. F. Likhanov

An important element in plants adaptation to adverse environmental stress factors is the synthesis of secondary metabolites which involved in formation for the constitutional stability of plant organism. Saponins play an important role in the regulation of metabolic processes and the development of adaptive and defense plant reactions. Triterpene saponins have pronounced surface-active properties, increase activity of certain enzymes and perform antioxidant function, which in general determines their important role in formation of a common nonspecific plant resistance system. Sugar beet contains saponins of the triterpenoid type. Our experiments were shown that some vegetative parts of in vitro plants of sugar beet accumulate secondary metabolites including phenolic carboxylic acids, flavonoids and saponins, which play an important role in the formation for the constitutional resistance. The general condition of the plant organism and the survival strategy depends on activity of phenolic substances and saponins synthesis. Phenolic carboxylic acids in leaves of in vitro sugar beet plants were determined by thin layer chromatography method. Generally, in leaves of sugar beet varieties, hybrids were found saponins with Rf values of 0.21, 0.32, 0.35, and 0.51. Qualitative composition and quantitative indices of triterpene saponins and phenolic compounds content in sugar beet leaves during in vitro cultivation have sortspecific character, due to the peculiarities of their metabolism. Taking into account the absolutely identical composition of nutrient medium, same photo- and thermo-regimes for cultivation of in vitro sugar beet, triterpenoid saponins with Rf = 0,56 and 0,62 are biochemical markers which determine adaptive potential of plants-regenerants. This makes it possible to consider it expedient carrying out the researches of content of triterpene saponins as a marker for primary diagnostics and selection of plants-regenerants with a high adaptive potential and drought resistance at the initial stages of selection.

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