Cultural ecosystem services: The human connection to nature


Viitasalo Braat*

Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES) represent the non-material benefits that humans derive from nature, including spiritual, educational, aesthetic, and recreational values. Despite being less tangible than other ecosystem services, CES play a crucial role in enhancing human well-being and fostering a deeper connection to the natural world. This article explores the significance of CES, their relationship with biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and the need for their conservation and sustainable management. Understanding and valuing CES are essential steps towards achieving holistic conservation and ensuring the continued provision of these vital benefits to society.

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