Current fauna of parasitic flies of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Region
O. A. Fiodorova, T. A. Khlyzova, A. N. Siben, V. N. Domatsky, N. I. Beletskaya
The fauna of blood-sicking two-winged insects of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District is represented by 116 species. Hybomitra aequetincta, H. arpadi, H. lundbecki, H. nitidifrons nitidifrons, H. nitidifrons confiformis, Hybomitra astur. Thus, the fauna of gadflies of the district is represented by 26 species and 2 subspecies, and 16 species and 1 subspecies are known as potential carriers of dangerous diseases of humans and animals. The faunal list of mosquitoes of the region is represented by 29 species, incl. Replenished with 2 species -O. nigrinus and O. behningi, 24 species of midges, incl. 1-Simulium paramorsitans, biting midges with 33 species, incl. 1 species -Culicoides punctatus. This species was first indicated both for the tundra zone and for the region. The dominant species of horseflies were H. aequetincta and H. arpadi with an EID of 27.3%. Among the 12 registered species of mosquitoes, O. communis (ID 29%) prevailed in the Yamal District (ID 29%), and O. hexodontus in the Tazovsky District. (EID 29.4%). Among the identified species of midges, Simulium paramorsitans dominated in numbers, in the Yamal region with an ID of 80.7%, and in the Tazovsky region -90.5%. In the tundra in the south of the Yamal region, during the mass flight, up to 500 individuals of mosquitoes were simultaneously attacked by an average of 4598 individuals by the maximum data recorded. In the more northern point of the region, Bovanenkovo, the number of mosquitoes during this period was 270 individuals according to the average registration data, at a wind speed of 10 m/s. In the Tazovsky district, 46 female mosquitoes simultaneously attacked a man at a time, and 26 deer at a time. In the more northern part of the region - in Bovanenkovo, the number of midges according to the average data was 70 individuals, while the wind speed at the time of the survey reached 10 m / s, and for the midges this wind is a serious obstacle for active summer. In the Tazovsky district during this period, the number of midges was significantly lower and amounted to 131 individuals, according to the maximum data for recording per person and 56 individuals - per deer. The maximum number of biting midges (C. punctatus, up to 130 individuals registered for 5 minutes) was observed over the Arctic Circle in Yar-Sale in late August. The main component of the midges, the most disturbing reindeer in the tundra zone, are mosquitoes, and in some periods - midges. When studying the distribution of dedemagena tarandi under the conditions of the subarctic tundra of the Tazovsky region in 2018, the reindeer ’extensinvasiveness averaged 66.7 ± 1.6% with an invasion intensity of 9.4 ± 1.2 larvae. In the Priuralsky and Yamalsky districts, on average, the deer incidence of pathogens of edema nausea is slightly lower -34.6 and 28.8% by extension, with an invasion intensity of 9.4 ± 1.6 and 8.6 ± 1.2 larvae, respectively, in our opinion, due to the massive conduct of early chemotherapy. However, the invasion of deer that did not undergo therapeutic measures remains high - up to 100%, with AI - 18.5 ± 1.7 larvae. The release of larvae to pupation in 2018 was observed in August, which was not recorded in the literature. Thus, the first insects appeared near deer from 6.30-7 hours, and the last at 21 hours. From the second half of August, insect activity was noted from 9.30-11 am (the peak of activity was at 13-14 o'clock and at 16-18 h, respectively). The highest activity and the number of gadflies is observed at illumination of 45-90 thousand lux and a temperature of 18-28°C. In the days of high activity and abundance, more than 10 female gadflies attacked the control deer in a 30-minute count. Early education (III decade of November - I decade of December) on the skins of fistulas and a significant amount of larvae of II age attract attention, which, in our opinion, can also be associated with a change in climatic conditions.