Dominant sucker pests on industrial vineyards and protective measures in the regulation of their abundance in the conditions of the northern Black sea
I.I. Gulyaeva, O.O. Kraynov, O.Yu. Hubych, S.V. Stankevych, I.V. Zabrodina, A.V. Matsyura
The paper presents the results of monitoring a complex of sucking pests on grape plantations in the south of Ukraine. In recent years, a large number of scientists point out that the phytosanitary state of grape plantations is characterized by constant changes in the populations of harmful organisms and there is a stable tendency of stable growth in the number of sucking pests that have mass development. Our monitoring data conducted on grape plantations in the south of Ukraine confirm noticeable functional and structural changes in the entomocomplex of sucking pests under the influence of changing environmental conditions. It has been established that the main manifestations of such transformations are sharply changed climatic and anthropogenic factors, since the development of this pests group is closely related to the weather conditions of vegetation and the technology of grapes cultivation, and the violation leads to an expansion of the species diversity of harmful objects in plantations and an increase in the population size of individual harmful species. The results of conducted monitoring indicate that the level of presence and spread of sucking pests on grape plantations in the south of Ukraine is quite high and diverse, which requires the development of more effective measures to regulate their development and harmfulness. Surveys of table and technical varieties of grape every ten days showed that all experimental grape varieties are populated with sucking pests to varying degrees, and it was noted that this group of pests does not show varietal selectivity. Studies on the species composition of sucking pests on grape plantations in the south of Ukraine have shown that cicadas (Cicadinea) and acariform mites – herbivorous gall mites (Eriophyidae)-occupy an important place among phytophages. Thrips (Thysanoptera) have periodic mass development, according to the climatic conditions of the year, and spider mites (Tetranychidae) gradually lose their prevalence and number. A comparative analysis of the development of dominant sucking pests revealed that the greatest damage to plants is observed at the end of the season, which is associated, among other things, with the influence of anthropogenic factors. The terms of phytophage development varies by years and depends on a complex of abiotic and biotic factors. It has been shown that due to prolonged spring temperature drops, the development time of bud and leaf mites has displaced. Among the most commonly spread sucking pests, the expansion of the area of harmfulness for the Japanese cicada, cicada metcalfa and grape erineum mite has been established. Observations of the study of the development and species composition of cicadas, it was found that in the vineyards of the south of Ukraine, the most commonly spread and harmful are such species as buffalo treehopper, yellow cicada, grapevine cicada. On average, during the growing season, sucking pests inhabited more than 87.6% of the surveyed grape plantations with an intensity of damage to the leaf apparatus of plants–on average from 9.5% to 45.5%. It has been determined the technical effectiveness of preparations of chemical and biological origin: Voliam Flexi, Coragen, Proclaim, to limit the spread and development of sucking pests, which is 92.3%, 89.5%, 88.6%, respectively. It was found that against the complex of sucking pests, which allows saving entomoacarophages, it is more effective to use such preparations as Vetrimek, Voliam Flexi, Coragen, Proclaim than preparations from chemical groups of organophosphate compounds and pyrethroids. It is established that the peculiarities of climatic conditions in the south of Ukraine are favorable for overwintering, development, spread and accumulation of the number of sucking pests in vineyards.