Ecological And Hematological Characteristics Of Common Roach (rutilus Rutilus Linnaeus, 1758) In The Zaporozhye Reservoir
T. S. Sharamok, N. B. Esipova, O. V. Fedonenko, O. V. Biletska
The research was conducted in Zaporozhye Reservoir (Ukraine) in the period from 2014 to 2015. Researches were taken in two parts of the reservoir, which differ in their ecological and hydrological conditions, are the main spawning areas and the most industrial mastered reservoirs. The water quality of Zaporozhye Reservoir lower areas (according to the containing of heavy metals) is largely relevant to carp fisheries regulations with the exception of copper, which exceeded M?C by 7 times. In the Samara Bay the copper content exceeded by 8 times, manganese – 1.7 times, plumbum – 1.5 and cadmium – 2 times comparing to the MAC. The aim of research was to identify the characteristics of heavy metal accumulation, to set cytometric, morphological and physiological characteristics of erythrocyte and leukocyte formula in different age groups of roach (Rutilus rutilus Linnaeus, 1758). It was established that the content of heavy metals in fish did not exceed the M?C for fish as food. The 2-year roach accumulates essential elements more extensively than mature fish (4-year). The statistically significant differences between the content of some heavy metals were registered for fish specimens from different ecological parts of reservoirs. A characteristic feature of blood cells taken from 2-year and 4-year roach of polluted Samara Bay reservoir was the reducing of the relative abundance of mature forms of red blood cells and probable increasing of immature normoblasts, especially basophilic normoblasts (up to 40–60%), which indicates the suppression of erythropoiesis processes in fish. A probable increase the various kinds of pathology (anisocytosis, hypochromia, cytolysis, destroying cell membranes, kariolisis, kariopiknoz etc.) in blood cells of roach from Samara Bay was revealed. The morphological-cytometric research of red blood cells showed no probable differences in fish from the two studied areas, except for nuclei areas of red blood cells, which increased in roach fingerlings from Samara Bay due to the increasing of nuclear mass by amitotic activation of cell division. According tour results the probable increase of phagocytic cells – neutrophils and monocytes, and almost 30% decrease in the proportion of lymphocytes was revealed, which indicates relevant decrease in fish immune capacity. Thus, the deviation of hematological parameters of roach in the Zaporozhye Reservoir could be a reliable criterion for evaluating the impact of heavy metals on hydroecological system.