Ecological and toxicological characteristics of selenium nanocompounds
S.I. Tsekhmistrenko*, I.V. Pertsovyi, N.M. Prysiazhniuk, N.V. Rol, N.V. Ponomarenko, V.M. Polishchuk, O.I. Rozputnyy, I.M. Kushnir, M.Ya. Spivak, A.A. Demchenko, N.O. Tymoshok, V.M. Kharchishin, O.S. Tsekhmistrenko, V.S. Bityutskyy and T.S. Tokarchuk
The toxicity of selenium and probiotic preparations by intragastric administration to laboratory animals (white rats), weight coefficients of their internal organs, hematological parameters of blood were determined. The studies were performed on three groups of white rats, which for thirty days received sodium selenite with probiotics and bionanoselenium at doses of fed drugs 1000, 3000, and 5000 mg/kg. We considered physiological parameters, namely, appearance, condition of fur and visible mucous membranes, behavior, rhythm, respiratory rate, attitude to food, time of onset and nature of intoxication, severity, course time of death, or recovery. Studies have shown the absence of death of animals or diseases with intragastric use of the studied drugs, which allows them to be classified as toxicity class 4 – low-toxic substances. At autopsy of the internal organs of the thoracic and abdominal cavities, no pathological changes were detected, and no significant changes in the weight of the liver, heart, lungs, and kidneys, compared with the control group, for 30 days of study supplemented with a simultaneous increase in spleen weight. No signs of inflammation, circulatory disorders, and trophies were found in the parenchymal organs. Long-term admission of the studied drugs caused a probable increase in hematological parameters (hemoglobin concentration, number of erythrocytes and leukocytes, hematocrit) in the experimental animals. 30-day application of nanoselenium caused an increase in total protein content in animals of the experimental groups by 7.9–11.5% (p <0.05) compared with the control group. There was a probable increase (p <0.01) in urea levels. The use of therapeutic, 5-fold and 10-fold therapeutic doses caused an increase in the content of total cholesterol and medium-weight molecules compared to the control group. The use of nanoselen did not cause significant changes in transaminase activity and glucose levels. The conducted primary toxicological study is the basis for developing and using low-toxic, effective, and environmentally friendly drugs for industrial poultry and livestock that do not cause side effects.