Ecological monitoring of water bodies in Central Polissya (Ukraine)
I.V. Shumygai, O.V. Mudrak, V.V. Konishchuk, H.V. Mudrak, M.V. Khrystetska
Extensive and long-term use of Ukraine's rivers in various spheres of human activity has caused them to undergo significant changes. In many cases, their condition is approaching a crisis or has already acquired it. The flow of various pollutants into rivers results in significant changes in hydrochemical characteristics. The state environmental monitoring of water bodies uses a comprehensive approach, but not all water bodies are covered by state monitoring. We have conducted a comprehensive analysis of the ecological status of water bodies in Central Polissya, using current and retrospective data of hydrochemical, hydrobiological analysis for rivers described in this article. The article presents the results of the ecological assessment of surface water quality of rivers Uzh and Irsha, taking into account hydrochemical parameters that indicate the polluted state (class III) during 2018-2020 with a significant contribution and in the formation of the quality class of salt composition, tropho-saprobiological block, and block of other toxic substances. Flushing from urban areas contributes a significant share to the pollution of Polissya's surface springs. An essential component of bioresources is fish stocks, which have been declining in recent years. The main factors hindering the development of fisheries and negatively affecting the reproduction of fish stocks are pollution of water bodies, violation of the hydrological regime, weakening of state control over the catch and sale of aquatic living resources. Analysis of the age composition of the ichthyofauna of the studied rivers by catching nets and tools for catching young fish makes it possible to determine perch (Perca fluviatilis) and silver carp (Carassius gibelio) dominate in the reservoirs. Currently, fish stocks in the rivers of the Dnieper basin are under intense pressure from poaching, which is one of the most negative anthropogenic factors.
Keywords: surface waters, ecological assessment, surface water quality, pollution, ichthyofauna, species composition
Alekseyev, L.S. (2009). Kontrol kachestva vody. Moscow: INFRA-M (?n Russian).
Astrelin, I., Herasymov, E., Hirol, A. et al. (2015). Fizyko-khimichni metody ochyshchennya vody. Upravlinnya vodnymy resursamy. Kyiv: Water Harmony (in Ukrainian).
Bulakhov, V.L., Novitskyy, R.O., Pakhomov, O. E. & Khrystov, O.O. (2008). Biolohichne riznomanittya Ukrayiny. Dnipropetrovs?ka oblast. Kruhloroti (Cyclostomata). Ryby (Pisces). Dnipropetrovsk: Dnipropetrovsk National University (in Ukrainian).
Dubyna, D.V. (2006). Vyshcha vodna roslynnist. Lemnetea, Potametea, Ruppietea, Zosteretea, Isoeto-Littorelletea (Eleocharition acicularis, Isoetes lacustris, Potamion graminei, Sphagno Utricularion), Phragmito-Magnocaricetea (Glycerio-Sparganion, Oenanthion aquaticae, Phragmition communis, Scirpion maritimi). Kyiv: Fitosotsiotsentr (in Ukrainian).
Feshchenko, V.P. (2016). Ratsionalne vykorystannya ta vidnovlennya vodnykh resursiv. Zhytomyr: Zhytomyr State University named after I. Franko (in Ukrainian).
Honcharuk, V.V. (2009). Khimiya vody i problemy pytnoho vodopostachannya. Nauka i Tekhnolohiyi, 4, 18-27 (in Ukrainian).
Hranychnodopustymi znachennya pokaznykiv yakosti vody dlya rybohospodarskykh vodoym. Zahalnyy perelik HDK i OBRV shkidlyvykh rechovyn dlya vody rybohospodarskykh vodoym (1990). No 12-04-11, 09-08-1990. Kyiv: Ministerstvo rybnoho hospodarstva SSSR (in Ukrainian).