Ecological prerequisites for the disease outbreaks
N.O. Voloshyna, O.V. Mudrak, O.G. Voloshyn, H.V. Mudrak, O.M. Lazebna
The problematic situation in the world with the spread of COVID-19, the study of the origin, spread, management of biological risks, and the development of effective countermeasures has become one of the most relevant information topics in 2020. The pandemic caused by the SARS CoV-2 virus has sharpened the focus on all-natural foci of disease that have emerged in recent years with varying degrees of intensity in human and animal populations, creating epidemic epizootic emergencies in different countries. Under the influence of solid anthropogenic pressure, global climate change and natural disasters, migratory flows, and other socioeconomic and environmental factors, some of the previously unknown or known but controlled diseases (rabies, Lyme disease, Ebola) are gaining new importance. The manifestation of most natural focal infectious diseases is due to the population's response to environmental factors. It is manifested by expanding the range, overcoming the species barrier, increasing the pathogen's virulence, and forming atypical routes of transmission. Classical mechanisms of population regulation, principles, and patterns of the structural and functional organization of natural ecosystems today are essential in forming a systematic approach to solving the problem of control and counteraction of socially significant emergent diseases.
Keywords: disease outbreaks, ecological factor, epidemic, pandemic, natural focal diseases
Analytical review of the state of technogenic and natural security in Ukraine in 2018. (2019). Ukrainian Research Institute of Civil Defense State Emergency Service. Retrieved from: https://www.dsns.gov.ua/files/prognoz/report/2018/AO_2018.pdf (in Ukrainian).
Andreychin, M.A. (2019). The problem of emergent infections in Ukraine. Infectious diseases, 4 (98), 5–9. (in Ukrainian).
Annual Report of NGOs (Public NGO Assessment) "Public Assessment of National Environmental Policy" for 2011 (including analysis for the period from 2003). (2012). V. Melnychuk, O. Kravchenko, T. Malkova (Eds.). Kyiv (in Ukrainian).
Anthropozoonotic and zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 on mink farms. bioRxiv. (2020). 09.01.277152. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.01.277152 (in Ukrainian).
Borodavka, V., Hetmanchuk, A., Bortnik, T., Kychyliuk, O., Voytiuk, V. (2017). A new pathogenic complex of pine forests of Volyn Polissya. Scientific Bulletin of the Lesia Ukrainka East European National University, 23–31 (in Ukrainian).
COVID-19 and Animals. (2019). Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/animals.html (in Ukrainian).
Gorban, V. (2019). Fundamentals of parasitology. Parasitism as a biological phenomenon. Tutorial, Kyiv (in Ukrainain).
Khomenko, S., Rozstalny, A., Polishchuk, V., Nevolko, O. (2016). African swine fever in Ukraine and forecasting its spread. Animal biology, 18 (2), 133–144. (in Ukrainian).
Komisarenko, S. (2020). World coronavirus crisis. ?yiv. LAT & ? (in Ukrainian).
Kravchenko, R.A. (2019). On the question of the strategy of reducing the risk of emergencies of natural and human-made nature in Ukraine. Investments: practice and experience, 13, 104–110. (in Ukrainian).
Kurtyak, B.M., Romanovich, M.S., Pundyak, T.O. (2017). Ecological features of epizootic processes. Scientific Bulletin of LNUVMB named after S.Z. Gzhytsky, 19 (78), 108–111. (in Ukrainian).
Litvin, V.Yu. (1999). Natural focal infections: key issues and new positions. Microbiology, 5, 26–33 (in Ukrainian).
Moutou, F., Pastoret, P. (2015). Defining an emerging disease. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz, 34(1), 41–44. Retrieved from: http://web.oie.int/boutique/extrait/04moutou4144ang.pdf (in Ukrainian).
Nakonechny, I.V. (2020). Coronavirus pandemic as an ecological phenomenon and its patterns Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/344494152_KORONOVIRUSNAA_PANDEMIA_KAK_EKOLOGICESKOE_AVLENIE_I_EGO_ZAKONOMERNOSTI (in Ukrainian).
OIE – Terrestrial Animal Health Code. (2013). Twenty-second Edition. Retrieved from: https://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D12825.PDF (in Ukrainian).
Polishchuk, P.V., Voloshina, N.O. (2020). The state of the study of ecological, biological, and genetic features of the family Scolytidae. Environmental sciences, 2 (29), 1, 150–157 (in Ukrainian).
REPORT on the main results of the Civil Service of Ukraine for Emergencies in 2019. (2020). Retrieved from: https://www.dsns.gov.ua/files/2020/1 (in Ukraine).
Roitman, V.A., Beer, S.A. (2008). Parasitism as a form of symbiotic relationships. Moscow (in Russian).
Transmissible and parasitic diseases. (2020). Annual Ministerial Meeting on Priority Health in the European Region: Joint Commitments in Support of the Sustainable Development Goals and Health-2020 Policies. Retrieved from: https://www.euro.who.int/ru/health-topics/communicable-diseases/vector-borne-and-parasitic-diseases/news/news/2018/8/annual-meeting-of-ministers-to-set-health-priorities-in-europe) (in Ukraine).
WHO: Novel ?oronavirus – China (Disease outbreak news: Update 12 January 2020). (2020a). Electronic resource. Retrieved from: www.who.int/csr/don/12-january-2020-novel-coronavirus-china/en/ (in Ukrainian).
WHO: Weekly epidemiological update. (2020b). 8 December 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/weekly-epidemiological-update-8-december-2020
WHO: World health statistics. (2015). Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/data/gho/publications/world-health-statistics
Zadorozhna, V.I., Vynnyk, N.P. (2020). Coronavirus 2019-nCOV: new challenges to health and humanity Infectious diseases, 1 (99), 5–15. (in Ukrainian).