Ecological testing of potatoes
A.A. Podhaietskyi, N.V. Kravchenko, V.M. Kovalenko, R.O. Bondus, V.V. Hordienko, L.M. Cherednichenko, V.M. Sobran
The article presents the theoretical prerequisites and their experimental confirmation regarding the search for an environmental complex for the effective evaluation of the pre-breeding and breeding potato material for late blight resistance, as well as the ecological testing of varieties and hybrids. The complicated interspecies potato hybrids, their backcrosses and standard varieties were used as the starting material in the study. Late blight resistance was evaluated in the conditions of natural and artificial backgrounds, including those created in the mountain areas different in vertical zonality. The ecological testinghas been carried out in different ecological zones: southern Polissia, north-eastern Forest-Steppe, southern central Forest-Steppe, Ukrainian Carpathians for three years. Taking into account the opinion of potato scientists and on the basis of our study, the following types of ecological potato testing were identified: zonal ecological testing, specialized ecological testing, and testing in different areas by vertical zonality. It has been experimentally proved that inepiphytotic years with respect to late blight, the evaluation of the manifestation of the sign under the conditions of not only the infectious but natural backgroundis possible. However, the optimal conditions for conducting such study, conditioned by a specific environmental complex, have been created by nature in the Ukrainian Carpathians, especially at an altitude of 1330 m above sea level. While conducting the ecological testing of interspecies hybrids and their backcrosses in the three ecological zones during three years, we managed to determine the potential of the material under study with respect to productivity. The optimal conditions for the maximum productivity of hybrids were determinedin various environmental complexes: zonal, meteorological and their interrelations. The favorable conditions for 55% of hybridsturned to bethe conditions of Sumy NAU, and for ten hybrids in 2017 and one hybrid-in 2015. For nine hybrids, such conditions were found in the Institute of Potato Growing only in 2016. The environmental complex on the territory of UstymivskaExperimental Station has had a negative impact on the manifestation of the indicator. The influence of both the specificity of the environmental complex and meteorological conditions of potato growing seasonson the hybrid productivity has been revealed. It has been proved that by the difference in the productivity expression depending on the test area and meteorological conditions of the potato vegetation periods, 65% of the samples was more influenced by the latter set of factors.