Ecological-based adaptation of agriculture to the soil and climatic conditions in Russian steppe
Gulyanov Yu.A., Chibilev A.A., Levykin S.V., Silantieva M.M., Kazachkov G.V., Sokolova L.V.
The article substantiates the urgency of environmental optimization of steppe land use, aimed at overcoming the acute challenges of our time, associated with the depletion of natural resources, climate change and food tension. The article analyzes the main problems of nature use, typical for steppe regions of Russia at a modern geoecological state of landscapes. The transboundary character of the territory under consideration is noted and the evolution of its landscapes under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors, which make the study of the issues of rational use of natural resources and sustainable development of steppe regions actual, is described. The attention is focused on the significant participation of the mesoregion under consideration, which has the main share of the area of spread of black earths, in the production of agricultural products and strategic importance for the sustainable functioning of the Russian economy. Correlation-regression relations of the main ecological factors with productivity of grain agrocenoses are analyzed and ecologically oriented methods of increasing the efficiency of bioclimatic resources use of the mentioned territory are substantiated. Promising technological solutions, the introduction of which guarantees the maintenance of social and food security, will ensure the inexhaustible use of soil and land resources and reduce the anthropogenic impact on natural ecosystems, the preservation of biological diversity in the steppe regions in their agricultural use. The conclusion is made about the possibility of increasing the economic feasibility of crop production and noticeable soil-restoring and medium improving effects, new reserves to meet the needs of the modern generation and ensure social justice, while reducing the risks of impoverishment of the environment and limiting the life opportunities of future generations.
Key words: Optimization of steppe land use; Natural ecosystems; Environmental factors; Landscape adaptive farming
Bulletin on the state of agriculture (electronic versions). (2018). Catalogue of publications: Federal State Statistics Service. Available from: http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1265196018516/ (Accessed on 09.10.2019). (in Russian).
Chibilev, A.A. (2016). Optimization of the structure of the land fund and development of a network of protected areas in the steppe zone of Russia. Orenburg: Steppe Institute of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (in Russian).
Chibilev, A.A. (2019). Prospects of integration of the "digital land use" in landscape adaptive farming of the steppe zone. Problems of regional ecology, 2, 32-37. (in Russian).
Chibilev, A.A. (Jr.). (2016). Analysis of the use of land resources in the aspect of formation of socio-economic potential and assessment of indicators of sustainable development of the steppe regions of the Russian Federation. Optimization of the structure of the land fund and development of a network of protected areas in the steppe zone of Russia. Orenburg. Steppe Institute of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (in Russian).
Chibilev, A.A., Chibilev (yr), A.A., Rudneva, O.S., Sokolov, A.A., Padalko, Yu.A., Meleshkin, D.S., Grigorevsky, D.V. (2018). Problems of sustainable development of social and economic geosystem stem zone in the Russian Federation. Orenburg: Steppe Institute of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (in Russian).
Dospekhov, B.A. (1985). Field experience methodology (with basics of statistical processing of research results). Moscow: Agropromizdat (in Russian).
Gulianov Yu.A. (2006). Adaptation of technological methods of winter wheat cultivation in the steppe regions of the Southern Urals. Agrobiological features and parameters of models of highly productive agrocenosis of field crops in the arid conditions of the Southern Urals: a collection of scientific papers. Orenburg: Publishing Center of Orenburg State Agrarian University (in Russian).
Gulianov, Yu.A., Dosov, D.Zh., Umarova, S.V. (2010). Efficiency of the bioclimatic resources use at the winter wheat growing in the Orenburg region (in Russian). Izvestia of the Orenburg State Agrarian University, 2, 48-50 (in Russian).
Kiryushin, V.I., Belkov, G.I. (1999). Scientific bases of the adaptive-landscape systems of agriculture (in Russian). Sustainable agriculture system of the Orenburg region. Orenburg: Orenburg Book Publishing House (in Russian).
Levykin, S.V., Kazachkov, G.V. (2017). Steppe question of Russia: from steppe studies to degree studies. Successes of the modern science and practice, 3(6), 211-220. (in Russian).
Paramonov, E.G. (2011). State of protective forestation in the Altai Territory. Izvestiya of Altai State University, 8(82), 48-52. (in Russian).
Pichugin, A.P., Morozova, E.V. (1999). Yield of winter wheat at complex increase of chernozems fertility. Direction of stabilization of development and exit from crisis of agrarian and industrial complex in modern conditions. Voronezh (in Russian).
Polyakov, D.G., Khalin, A.V., Bakirov, F.G., Nesterenko, Yu.M., Vasilieva, T.N. (2016). Moisture dynamics of the black earths in the southern Orenburg region during the direct sowing and the main soil treatment (in Russian). Bulletin of the Orenburg Scientific Center of the Ural Branch of RAS, 4, 13. (in Russian).
Regions of Russia. Socio-economic indicators. (2018). R32 Statutory collection Rosstat. Moscow. Available from: http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_-main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1138623506156/ (Accessed on 01.10.2019). (in Russian).
Shatilov, I.S., Stolyarov, A.I. (1986). Yield Programming Guide. Moscow. Rosselkhozizdat (in Russian).
Sokolova, L.V., Silantieva, M.M., Belyaev, V.I. (2019). Factors causing the reduction of steppe ecosystems of the Altai Territory. The Turkic-Mongolian World of the Big Altai: Historical and Cultural Heritage and Modernity. Proceed. First Int. Altaitical Forum, Barnaul-Gorno-Altaisk, 12-14 September 2019. Barnaul. Altai State University Publishing (in Russian).
Strategy for Scientific and Technological Development of the Russian Federation (approved by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of December 1, 2016 № 642. Available from: http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/bank/41449/ (Accessed on 14.09.2019) (in Russian).