Effect of ethylene-releasing compound Esphon on the anatomical structure, yield, and quality of Gooseberry (Grossularia reclinata (L.) Mill.)
We were determined the effect of ethylene-releasing compound Esphon® on the morphogenesis and production process of gooseberry plants of the Mashenka variety. The Esphon treatment of gooseberry plants at the budding phase led to the modification of donor-acceptor relations in the plant, which was expressed through anatomical and morphological changes in vegetative organs, redistribution of assimilates towards the berries formation. The linear growth of shoots was inhibited, a more significant number of vessels in the xylem were formed under the drug's action compared to control, while the thickness of the cell walls of sclerenchyma fibers of cortex increased. The consequence of this restructuring was a more intensive accumulation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in annual gooseberry shoots as compared to control, as well as reserve forms of carbohydrates - sugars and starch that indicate a complete ripening of the shoot and is a prerequisite for high frost resistance of the crop. The leaf blade thickened due to the formation of a more powerful chlorenchyma under Esphon interaction. Retardant treatment caused an increase in the spongy's linear dimensions and columnar parenchyma volume - the primary assimilative leaf tissue. Optimization of the leaf's mesostructure organization enhanced the provision of morphogenetic processes with assimilates that caused an increase in the nonstructural carbohydrate content (sugars + starch) in the leaves compared to untreated plants at all stages of development. As a result of such regulation, a more powerful donor sphere increased the gooseberry crop yield, the content of sugars and ascorbic acid in the berries, the accumulation, and redistribution of assimilated flows from the vegetative organs to the fruits.