Effect Of The Soil Cultivation And Fertilization On The Abundance And Species Diversity Of Weeds In Corn Farmed Ecosystems
O. I. Tsyliuryk, S. M. Shevchenko, O. M. Shevchenko, N. V. Shvec, V. O. Nikulin, Ya. V. Ostapchuk
We determined that the structure of phytocenosis of weeds in corn crops caused by the influence of their adaptive ability and structure of crop areas in crop rotation. The basis of the dominance of weeds in the species structure is the resistance to herbicides, wide range of similarity, morphological plasticity, and the presence of non-toxic signs. The application of the technology of corn cultivation of small, non-field multicultural soil cultivation (chiseling, flattening loosening) leads to strong increase in the level of permeation by 1.4-1.8 times, which in turn requires the additional rules for soil treatment and postemerged herbicides that reliably control the corn productivity. It has been proved that field plowing and chiseling together with the introduction of the N30P30K30 had minimal advantage on the corn grain yields in non-fertilized conditions due to better nutritional conditions and lower levels of perennial crops. The most effective soil treatment was the shallow and flattening loosening of the chip which under increase of nitrogen content (N60P30K30) caused by corn fertilization allows us to obtain the same yield concerning the plowing and chiseling. The methods of basic soil cultivation under low level of feed infestation (9.0-12.6 pieces/m²) did not have significant effect on the quality of corn grain. The introduction of mineral fertilizers (especially nitrogen) increases the tendency to increase the protein content in the grain (proteins) and reduce the content of carbohydrates, especially the starch.