S.I. Tsekhmistrenko*, V.S. Bityutskyy, O.S. Tsekhmistrenko, O.M. Melnichenko, V.M. Kharchyshyn, N.O. Tymoshok, N.V. Ponomarenko, S.A. Polishchuk, N.V. Rol, M.M. Fedorchenko, Yu.O. Melnichenko, H.V. Merzlova, O.P. Shulko and A.A. Demchenko
We studied the lipid peroxidation processes, activity of antioxidant defense enzymes, energy metabolism in blood, liver, and kidney of quails under modeling of cadmium loading and correction of these processes by action of Selenium and its inorganic (sodium selenite) and organic (selenite) compounds. The feeding of the quails with the Sel-Plex preparation in the compound feed of 0.15 mg/kg of dry feed promotes the activation of anaerobic and aerobic processes in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of liver cells. Increased activity of antioxidant enzymes, in particular superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (the active center of which includes the redox-active selenocysteine residue). The use of Selenium compounds increases the total lipid content of the quail kidneys. This increases the activity of glutathione-dependent enzymes, which include Selenium that reduced the lipoperoxidation products content and restored the activity of SOD and catalase. We established that the intake of cadmium sulfate caused intensification of the processes of peroxide oxidation, which changed the activity of antioxidant enzymes of SOD and catalase in quail kidneys and livers. Under cadmium loading, the pathological effect of the toxicant was counterbalanced by the use of Selenium compounds and the general physiological state returned to the control level. This increased the antioxidant status of the quail organism and reduced the negative impact of cadmium sulfate. We proposed the green synthesis method for safe and environmental-friendly generation of the selenium nanoparticles. We proved that adding nano-selenium (Nano-Se) to the quails’ feed increased the safety of livestock number and the average daily growth. We also definitely recommend using Selenium compounds for the correction of structural and metabolic poultry disorders caused by effects of heavy metals.