Efficacy of flea and tick collars against the ectoparasites of domestic animals


A.P. Paliy, N.V. Sumakova, K.O. Rodionova, A.M. Mashkey, N.V. Alekseeva, Ye.A. Losieva, A.I. Zaiarko, V.K. Kostyuk, T.V. Dudus, B.S. Morozov, O.O. Hurtovyi, A.P. Palii

One of the most common parasitic diseases of domestic animals is their lesions by bloodsuckers, including fleas, lice, ticks. According to the study's results, the ectoparasite infestation of stray dogs (n=28) and cats (n=22) is mono - and a mix of invasions. The highest intensity of flea invasions in dogs and cats was from 2.5±2.0 to 8.5±2.0 and from 1.5±1.5 to 5.5±2.0 individuals per 10 cm² of animal skin area, respectively. Regardless of the year's season, it is necessary to pay special attention to the control and prevention of ectoparasitosis in animals. The purpose of our research was to determine the effectiveness of the use of flea and tick collars for pets with the active ingredient fipronil. Collars containing fipronil are well tolerated by pets and do not cause any side effects or changes in their clinical condition. Clinical studies have established a high activity of the investigated tick and flea collars against fleas, lice, lice, and parasitomorphic ticks. The effectiveness of flea and tick collars in production trials for dogs and cats' defeat with ectoparasites is 100%.

Keywords: fleas, lice, ticks, dogs, cats, collar, fipronil, invasion intensity



Abarca, K., Gárate, D., López, J., & Acosta-Jamett, G. (2016). Flea and ticks species from dogs in urban and rural areas in four districts in Chile. Arch. med. vet., 48(2), 247-253. doi: 10.4067/S0301-732X2016000200017

Abbas, R. Z., Zaman, M. A, Colwell, D. D., Gilleard, J., & Iqbal, Z. (2014). Acaricide resistance in cattle ticks and approaches to its management: the state of play. Vet Parasitol., 203, 6-20. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.03.006

Abdulkareem, B. O., Christy, A. L., & Samuel, U. U. (2019). Prevalence of ectoparasite infestations in owned dogs in Kwara State, Nigeria. Parasite Epidemiology and Control, 4, e00079. doi: 10.1016/j.parepi.2018.e00079

Abdullah, S., Helps, C., Tasker, S., Newbury, H., & Wall, R. (2019). Pathogens in fleas collected from cats and dogs: distribution and prevalence in the UK. Parasites Vectors, 12, 71(2019). doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3326-x

Bahrami, A. M., Doosti, A., & Ahmady Asbchin, S. (2012). Cat and dogs ectoparasite infestations in Iran and Iraq boarder line area. World Appl. Sci. J., 18(7), 884-889. doi: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2012.18.07.1376

Beugnet, F., & Franc, M. (2010). Results of a European multicentric field efficacy study of fipronil-(S) methoprene combination on flea infestation of dogs and cats during 2009 summer. Parasite, 17(4), 337-342. doi: 10.1051/parasite/2010174337

Bitam, I., Dittmar, K., Parola, P., Whiting, M. F., & Raoult, D. (2010). Fleas and flea-borne diseases. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 667-676. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2009.11.011

Bogach, M. V., Paliy, A. P., Perots?ka, L. V., Pyvovarova, ?. V., Stoyanova, V. Y., & Palii, A. P. (2020). The influence of hydro-meteorological conditions on the spread of chicken cestodiasis. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 11(3), 414-418. doi: 10.15421/022063

Bourne, D., Craig, M., Crittall, J., Elsheikha, H., Griffiths, K., Keyte, S., Merritt, B., Richardson, E., Stokes, L., Whitfield, V., & Wilson, A. (2018). Fleas and flea-borne diseases: biology, control & compliance. Companion Animal, 23(4), 203-211. doi: 10.12968/coan.2018.23.4.201

Cadiergues, M. C., Joubert, C., & Franc, M. (2000). A comparison of jump performances of the dog flea, Ctenocephalides canis (Curtis, 1826) and the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835). Vet Parasitol., 92(3), 239-241. doi: 10.1016/s0304-4017(00)00274-0

Chee, J. H., Kwon, J. K., Cho, H. S., Cho, K. O., Lee, Y. J., Abd El-Aty, A. M., & Shin, S. S. (2008). A Survey of Ectoparasite Infestations in Stray Dogs of Gwang-ju City, Republic of Korea. The Korean Journal of Parasitology, 46(1), 23-27. doi: 10.3347/kjp.2008.46.1.23

Colella, V., Nguyen, V. L., Tan, D. Y., Lu, N., Fang, F., Zhijuan, Y., Wang, J., Liu, X., Chen, X., Dong, J., Nurcahyo, W., Hadi, U. K., Venturina, V., Tong, K. B. Y., Tsai, Y. L., Taweethavonsawat, P., Tiwananthagorn, S., Le, T. Q., Bui, K. L., Watanabe, M., Rani, P. A. M. A., Annoscia, G., Beugnet, F., Otranto, D., & Halos, L. (2020). Zoonotic Vectorborne Pathogens and Ectoparasites of Dogs and Cats in Eastern and Southeast Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(6), 1221-1233. doi: 10.3201/eid2606.191832

Dryden, M. W., Ryan, W. G., Bell, M., Rumschlag, A. J., Young, L. M., & Snyder, D. E. (2013). Assessment of owner-administered monthly treatments with oral spinosad or topical spot-on fipronil/(S)-methoprene in controlling fleas and associated pruritus in dogs. Veterinary Parasitology, 191(3-4), 340-346. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.09.003

Dumont, P., Chester, T. S., Gale, B., Soll, M., Fourie, J. J., & Beugnet, F. (2015). Acaricidal efficacy of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin against Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. Parasit Vectors., 8, 51. doi: 10.1186/s13071-015-0681-0

El-Husseini, M. M., El-Heneidy, A. H., & Awadallah, K. T. (2018). Natural enemies associated with some economic pests in Egyptian agro-ecosystems. Egypt J Biol Pest Control., 28, 78(2018). doi: 10.1186/s41938-018-0081-9

Festing, S., & Wilkinson, R. (2007). The ethics of animal research. Talking Point on the use of animals in scientific research. EMBO reports, 8(6), 526-530. doi: 10.1038/sj.embor.7400993

Fourie, J. J., Crafford, D., Horak, I. G., & Stanneck, D. (2013). Prophylactic Treatment of Flea-Infested Dogs with an Imidacloprid / Flumethrin Collar (Seresto®, Bayer) to Preempt Infection with Dipylidium caninum. Parasitol Res., 112, 33-46. doi: 10.1007/s00436-013-3279-5

Galat, V. F., Berezovsciy, A. V., Prus, M. P., & Soroka, N. M. (2009). Parasitology and invasive animal diseases. Kiev: Urojay, 363. (in Ukrainian)

Geary, T. G., & Thompson, D. P. (2003). Development of antiparasitic drugs in the 21st century. Vet Parasitol., 115(2), 167-184. doi: 10.1016/s0304-4017(03)00205-x

Gracia, M. J., Calvete, C., Estrada, R., Marcén, J. M., Pinal, R., & Peribáñez, M. A. (2017). Fipronil/(S)-methoprene spot-on to control fleas on cats in a field trial in Spain. Pesq. Vet. Bras., 37(6), 603-607. doi: 10.1590/s0100-736x2017000600012

Hartman, D. A., Rice, L. M., DeMaria, J., Borland, E. M., Bergren, N. A., Fagre, A. C., Robb, L. L., Webb, C. T., & Kading, R. C. (2019). Entomological risk factors for potential transmission of Rift Valley fever virus around concentrations of livestock in Colorado. Transbound Emerg Dis., 66(4), 1709-1717. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13206

Henrioud, A. N. (2011). Towards sustainable parasite control practices in livestock production with emphasis in Latin America. Vet Parasitol., 180(1-2), 2-11. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.05.026

Horak, I. G., Fourie, J. J., & Stanneck, D. (2012). Efficacy of slow-release collar formulations of imidacloprid/flumethrin and deltamethrin and of spot-on formulations of fipronil/(s)-methoprene, dinotefuran/pyriproxyfen/permethrin and (s)-methoprene/amitraz/fipronil against Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis on dogs. Parasit Vectors., 5, 79. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-79

Kabene, S., & Baadel, S. (2019). Bioethics: a look at animal testing in medicine and cosmetics in the UK. Journal of medical ethics and history of medicine, 12, 15. doi: 10.18502/jmehm.v12i15.1875

Kovalenko, V. L., Ponomarenko, G. V., Kukhtyn, M. D., Paliy, A. P., Bodnar, O. O., Rebenko, H. I., Kozytska, T. G., Makarevich, T. V., Ponomarenko, O. V., & Palii, A. P. (2020). Evaluation of acute toxicity of the "Orgasept" disinfectant. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 10(4), 273-278. doi: 10.15421/2020_199

Kumsa, B. E., & Mekonnen, S. (2011). Ixodid ticks, fleas and lice infesting dogs and cats in Hawassa, southern Ethiopia. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 78(1), 326. doi: 10.4102/ojvr.v78i1.326

Liu, L. X., & Weller, P. F. (1996). Antiparasitic drugs. N Engl J Med., 334(18), 1178-1184. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199605023341808

Martins, D. B., de Oliveira, E. Z., Valandro, M. A., Franco, M., & de Souza, J. (2013). Trichodectes canis in puppy and adult dogs. Comp Clin Pathol., 23, 1485-1489. doi: 10.1007/s00580-013-1810-9

Mathison, B. A., & Pritt, B. S. (2014). Laboratory Identification of Arthropod Ectoparasites. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 27(1), 48-67. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00008-13

Nambi, A. P., Rathi, B., Kavitha, S., Dudhatra, G., Yamini, H. S., & Bhat, A. A. (2016). Efficacy of a Novel Topical Combination of Fipronil 9.8% and (S)-Methoprene 8.8% against Ticks and Fleas in Naturally Infested Dogs. Scientifica, 2016, ID 7174685. doi: 10.1155/2016/7174685

Narladkar, B. W. (2018). Projected economic losses due to vector and vector-borne parasitic diseases in livestock of India and its significance in implementing the concept of integrated practices for vector management. Vet World., 11(2), 151-160. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2018.151-160

Navarro, C., Reymond, N., Fourie, J., Hellmann, K., & Bonneau, S. (2015). Prevention of Babesia canis in dogs: efficacy of a fixed combination of permethrin and fipronil (Effitix®) using an experimental transmission blocking model with infected Dermacentor reticulatus ticks. Parasit Vectors., 8, 32. doi: 10.1186/s13071-015-0645-4

Ng-Nguyen, D., Hii, S. F., Hoang, M. T. T., Nguyen, V. A. T., Rees, R., Stenos, J., & Traub, R. J. (2020). Domestic dogs are mammalian reservoirs for the emerging zoonosis flea-borne spotted fever, caused by Rickettsia felis. Sci Rep., 10, 4151(2020). doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-61122-y

Otranto, D., Torres, F. D., Napoli, E., Basano, F. S., Deuster, K., Pollmeier, M., Capelli, G., & Brianti, E. (2017). Season-long control of flea and tick infestations in a population of cats in the Aeolian archipelago using a collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin. Veterinary Parasitology, 248, 80-83. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2017.10.023

Paliy, A. P., Ishchenko, K. V., Marchenko, M. V., Paliy, A. P., & Dubin, R. A. (2018a). Effectiveness of aldehyde disinfectant against the causative agents of tuberculosis in domestic animals and birds. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 8(1), 845-850. doi: 10.15421/2018_283

Paliy, A. P., Mashkey, A. M., Sumakova, N. V., & Paliy, A. P. (2018b). Distribution of poultry ectoparasites in industrial farms, farms, and private plots with different rearing technologies. Biosystems Diversity, 26(2), 153-159. doi: 10.15421/011824

Paliy, A. P., Mashkey, A. N., Kasianenko, O. I., Petrov, R. V., Faly, L. I., & Palii, A. P. (2020a). Distribution, bioecological peculiarities of staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) in livestock biocenoses of forest-steppe and steppe Ukraine. Biosystems Diversity, 28(1), 24-28. doi: 10.15421/012004

Paliy, A. P., Petrov R. V., Kovalenko, L. M., Livoshchenko, L. P., Livoshchenko, Y. M., Klishchova, Z. E., Bula, L. V., Ostapenko, V. I., Doletskyi, S. P., & Palii, A. P. (2021). Effectiveness of a modern antiparasitic agent for deworming in domestic animals. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 11(1), 11-17. doi: 10.15421/2020_302

Paliy, A. P., Sumakova, N. V., Mashkey, A. M., Petrov, R. V., Paliy, A. P., & Ishchenko, K. V. (2018c). Contamination of animal-keeping premises with eggs of parasitic worms. Biosystems Diversity, 26(4), 327-333. doi: 10.15421/011849

Paliy, A. P., Sumakova, N. V., Paliy, A. P., & Ishchenko, K. V. (2018d). Biological control of house fly. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 8(2), 230-234. doi:10.15421/2018_332

Paliy, A. P., Sumakova, N. V., Petrov, R. V., Berezovskiy, A. V., Risovaniy, V. I., Zon, G. A., Ivanovskaya, L. B., Fotin, A. I., Dolbanosova, R. V., Livoshchenko, L. P., Livoshchenko, Ye. M., & Palii, A. P. (2020b). Endoparasic diseases of ostriches in eastern Ukraine. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 10(4), 235-241. doi: 10.15421/2020_193

Paliy, A. P., Sumakova, N. V., Rodionova, K. O., Nalivayko, L. I., Boyko, V. S., Ihnatieva, T. M., Zhigalova, O. Ye., Dudus, T. V., Anforova, M. V., & Kazakov, M. V. (2020c). Disinvasive action of aldehyde and chlorine disinfectants on the test-culture of Toxocara canis eggs. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 10(4), 175-183. doi: 10.15421/2020_185

Paliy, A. P., Sumakova, N. V., Telyatnikov, A. V., Zhukova, I. O., Kasianenko, O. I., Shkromada, O. I., Suprun, Yu. O., Plyuta, L. V., Yevtushenko, I. D., Kovalenko, L. V., Dotsenko, E. A., & Palii, A. P. (2020d). Study of the toxicity and effectiveness of an antiparasitic agent based on tinidazole and fenbendazole. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 10(6), 272-279. doi: 10.15421/2020_293

Paliy, A. P., Zavgorodniy, A. I., Stegniy, B. T., & Palii, A. P. (2020e). Scientific and methodological grounds for controlling the development and use of disinfectants. Monograph. Kharkiv: Miskdruk, 318. ISBN: 978-617-619-237-4. (in Ukrainian)

Paliy, A., Sumakova, N., Petrov, R., Shkromada, O., Ulko, L., & Palii, A. (2019). Contamination of urbanized territories with eggs of helmiths of animals. Biosystems Diversity, 27(2), 118-124. doi: 10.15421/011916

Pérez de León, A. A., Mitchell, R. D., & Watson, D. W. (2020). Ectoparasites of Cattle. Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice, 36(1), 173-185. doi: 10.1016/j.cvfa.2019.12.004

Pink, R., Hudson, A., Mouriès, M. A., & Bendig, M. (2005). Opportunities and Challenges in Antiparasitic Drug Discovery. Nat Rev Drug Discov., 4, 727-740. doi: 10.1038/nrd1824

Pollmeier, M., Pengo, G., Jeannin, P., & Soll, M. (2002). Evaluation of the efficacy of fipronil formulations in the treatment and control of biting lice, Trichodectes canis (De Geer, 1778) on dogs. Vet Parasitol., 107(1-2), 127-136. doi: 10.1016/s0304-4017(02)00090-0

Rodriguez-Vivas, R. I., Jonsson, N. N., & Bhushan, C. (2018). Strategies for the control of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks in a world of conventional acaricide and macrocyclic lactone resistance. Parasitol Res., 117(1), 3-29. doi: 10.1007/s00436-017-5677-6

Rust, M. K. (2020). Recent Advancements in the Control of Cat Fleas. Insects, 11(10), 668. doi: 10.3390/insects11100668

Saleh, M. N., Sundstrom, K. D., Duncan, K. T., Ientile, M. M., Jordy, J., Ghosh, P., & Little, S. E. (2019). Show us your ticks: a survey of ticks infesting dogs and cats across the USA. Parasites Vectors, 12, 595(2019). doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3847-3

Scaramozzino, P., Carvelli, A., Iacoponi, F., & De Liberato, C. (2018). Endoparasites in household and shelter dogs from Central Italy. International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine, 6(1), 45-47. doi: 10.1016/j.ijvsm.2018.04.003

Shkromada, O., Skliar, O., Paliy, A., Ulko, L., Suprun, Y., Naumenko, O., Ishchenko, K., Kysterna, O., Musiienko, O., & Paliy, A. (2019). Development of preventing means for rabits' coccidiosis. EUREKA: Health Sciences, 3(21), 58-68. doi: 10.21303/2504-5679.2019.00914

Stanneck, D., Ebbinghaus-Kintscher, U., Schoenhense, E., Kruedewagen, E. M., Turberg, A., Leisewitz, A., Jiritschka, W., & Krieger, K. J. (2012). The synergistic action of imidacloprid and flumethrin and their release kinetics from collars applied for ectoparasite control in dogs and cats. Parasites Vectors, 5, 73(2012). doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-73

Stegniy, B. T., Paliy, A. P., Pavlichenko, O. V., Muzyka, D. V., Tkachenko, S. V., & Usova, L. P. (2019). Virucidal properties of innovative disinfectant to Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus. Journal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety, 5(3), 27-33. doi: 10.36016/JVMBBS-2019-5-3-6

Swiger, S. L., & Payne, R. D. (2017). Selected Insecticide Delivery Devices for Management of Horn Flies (Haematobia irritans) (Diptera: Muscidae) on Beef Cattle. J Med Entomol., 54(1), 173-177. doi: 10.1093/jme/tjw144

Thamer, N. K., & Faraj, K. B. (2019). A survey of Ectoparasites Infestation in Stray Dogs in Basrah Province / Iraq. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 571(2019), 012062. doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/571/1/012062

Troyo, A., Calderon-Arguedas, O., Alvarado, G., Vargas-Castro, L. E., & Avendano, A. (2012). Ectoparasites of dogs in home environments on the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica. Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet., 21(2012), 179-183. doi: 10.1590/s1984-29612012000200021

Walker, M. D. (2017). Ticks on dogs and cats. The Veterinary Nurse, 8(9). doi: 10.12968/vetn.2017.8.9.486

Winter, J., Rehbein, S., & Joachim, A. (2018). Transmission of Helminths between Species of Ruminants in Austria Appears More Likely to Occur than Generally Assumed. Front. Vet. Sci., 5, 30. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00030

Woods, D. J., Vaillancourt, V. A., Wendt, J. A., & Meeus, P. F. (2011). Discovery and development of veterinary antiparasitic drugs: past, present and future. Future medicinal chemistry, 3(7), 887-896. doi: 10.4155/fmc.11.39

Young, D. R., Jeannin, P. C., & Boeckh, A. (2004). Efficacy of fipronil/(S)-methoprene combination spot-on for dogs against shed eggs, emerging and existing adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis, Bouché). Veterinary Parasitology, 125(3-4), 397-407. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.07.021

Yuskiv, I. D. (1998). Acarological studies of animals and acaricides: a training manual. Lviv: Kamenar (in Ukrainian)

Share this article