Empowering informal settlements around metropolises (Case study: District 19 of Tehran, Iran)
Informal settlement is one of the unfortunate consequences of urbanization in the contemporary world, especially as a result of the accelerated industrialization and regional inequalities, which has confronted many problems, especially cities and towns in general. According to statistics presented in the United Nations Human Resettlement Program (2003), one out of every three people in the world will live in the suburbs and illegal settlements for the next 30 years. This study investigates the causes of informal settlements in district 19 of Tehran. The baseline data for the year 1395 are field survey and were conducted for better study and sampling among sample households. The validity of the test was obtained by Cronbach's alpha formula: 0.62. The research method is descriptive-analytical. The statistical population consisted of all the households in the target neighborhoods. 107 individuals were selected by cluster sampling method and questionnaires were distributed among them. SPSS software was used for data analysis. The results show that one of the main strategies for organizing and resolving many of the problems of resettled households is empowering residents and revitalizing their physical structure and promoting economic activities, employment, creating new job opportunities and increasing income. Another approach that should be taken into consideration by the authorities is the improvement of demolished housing, due to the inability of tenants to occupy it and the need to consider and adopt a method to improve housing in demolished housing.
Keywords: Urbanization; Informal settlements; Empowering; District 19 of Tehran
Abbot, John. (2011). A Method-Base Planning Framework for Informal Settlement Upgrading, Habitat International 26.
Desouza, Flavio, A. (2007). The Future of Informal Settlement: Lessons in the Legalization of Disputed Urban Land in Recife Brazil, Geofrum 32.
Gulyani, Sumila, Connors, Genevieve. (2007). Urban Upgrading in Africa: A Summery of Rapid Assessments in Ten Countries, Africa Infrastructure Development, the World Bank.
Hafeznia, Mohammad, R. (2013). An Introduction to Research Methods in the Humanities, Tehran, Organization for the Study and Compilation of Humanities Books (Samat), Tehran.
Haj, Yousefi, Ali. (2003). The phenomenon of marginalization before the revolution, Collection of Articles on Marginalization and Informal Settlement, Volume 1, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences.
Hesamian, Farrokh . (2005). Urbanism in Iran, First Edition, Tehran, Negah Publications.
Hosseinzadeh, Dalir, Karim. (2006). Marginalization: In Search of Meaning and Concept, Political-Economic Information, No. 8 and 9.
Irandoost, Kiomars and Mozaffar, Sarrafi (2007). Yas and Omid in informal settlements, a case study of Kermanshah. Social Welfare, Year 7, No. 26, pp. 201 - 221.
Ismailpour, Najma (2010). Investigating the housing situation in informal settlements and presenting strategies for organizing them (case study: Hassanabad neighborhood), Journal of Urban and Regional Studies and Research, First Year, No. Fourth, Spring, pp. 112-95.
Javaheripour, Mehrdad, Babak, Davarpanah. (2010). Unstable settlements of low-income urban strata (review of recent policies on informal or unhealthy housing), Haftshahr Quarterly, No. 8.
Magutu, Jerry. (2013). The Role of Informal Settlement in Housing the Urban Poor in Nairobi, Kenya, Ekistics, Athens, Vol. 61.
Abbot, John. (2012). An Analysis of Informal Settlement Upgrading and Critique of Existing Methodological Approaches, Habitat International, 26.
Majdi, Ardakani, Mohammad, Hussein. (2011). The need to use appropriate materials and the consequences of forcing the standard of materials, Proceedings of the Third Seminar on Housing Development Policies in Iran, October 7-18, Volume II, Tehran, National Land and Housing Organization.
Martin, Jacques. (2003). Challenges of Urban Development in Southern Countries, UNESCO Message Magazine, No. 349.
Mohammadi, Younes. Marginalization and Development Strategies, Collection of Marginal Settlements and Informal Settlement, Knowledge
Napier, Mark. (2009). Informal settlement Integration: The Environment Sustainable livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa, Programmed for Sustainable Human Settlement, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), South Africa.
Nawagamuwa, Arawinda, Viking, nils. Slum. (2009). Squatter Areas and Informal Settlement in Developing Context? 9th International Conference on Srilanka Studies, 2009 Matara, Srilanka.
Ogu, Vincent I. (2006). Housing Enablement in a Developing World City: The Case Study of Benin City, Nigeria, Habitat International, Vol. 23, No. 2.
Piran, Parviz. (2012). Accelerated and heterogeneous urbanization of abnormal housing, political-economic information. No. 24.
Piran, Parviz. (2008). Accelerated and heterogeneous urbanization of shedding in Tehran, Political Information -. Economic, No. 4.
Piran, Parviz. (2006). Alonak Settlement in Iran: Theoretical Perspectives: A Look at the Conditions of Iran, Political-Economic Information, No. 87-88.
Poverty and Revolution in IRAN: Migrant Poor, Urban Kazemi, Farhad. Marginality and Politic. New York University Press, 2012.
Abdi, Borhan. (2009). Presenting Strategies for Attracting the Participation of Inhabitants of Informal Settlements (in the Process of Preparing and Implementing Urban Development Projects), City Identity, Third Year, No. 4, pp. 82-71.
Qader, Marzi, Hamed, Jamshidi, Alireza, Jamshidi, Masoumeh and Jemini, Davood. (2013). Prioritization of Informal Settlement Challenges Using Hierarchical Analysis (AHP) Case Study: Jafarabad Kermanshah, Urban Studies Quarterly, No. 6, Spring, pp. 58-43.
Rabbani, Khorasgani., Rasoul. (2005). A Study of Factors Affecting the Formation of Marginalization and Its Social Consequences in Ahvaz, Geography and Development, Vol. 4, No. 7, pp. 114-89.
Rabbani., Rasoul., Hamidreza., Varsi., Zahra, Taheri. (2009). An Analysis of the Main Cause of Suspicion of Hanshini Marginal Areas in Isfahan Case Study: Cheap and Dark Region, Geography and Development, No. 13.
Rafian, Mojtaba. (2010). Empowerment Studies of Low-Income Layers in Bandar Abbas, Sabzandish Payesh Consulting Engineers.
Rajaei, Abdolhamid. (2004). Application of Geomorphology in Environmental Management and Management, Tehran, Quds Publishing.
Sarrafi, Mozaffar. (2003). A Review of the Characteristics of Automated Accommodation in Iran: In Search of Empowerment Strategies, Collection of Marginalization and Informal Settlement Articles, Universityof Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Volume 1.
Sarrafi, Mozaffar. (2010). Urbanization of the World and Globalization of Cities; Sarrafi, Muzaffar. Towards a Theory for Organizing Informal Settlement - From Marginalization to Urban Text, Haft Shahr Quarterly, No. 8.
Sarvar, Rahim, Farhad Jafari. (2009). Urban Analysis and Futuristic Analysis of the Growth of Informal Settlements in the Metropolitan Area of Tehran, Geography, No. 77, Winter, pp. 23-23.
Shah Hosseini, Parvaneh. (2005). Habitat and Social Security Residence, Geography and Development, Fall and Winter, pp. 157-72.
Abedin Dakoush, Saeed, An Introduction to Urban Economics, Third Edition, Tehran, University Publishing Center.
Sheikhi, Mohammad. (2003). Automobile Housing, Transition from Marginalization to a Model of Habitat Surrounding Iranian Cities, Collection of Marginal Settlements and Informal Accommodation, Volume I, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences.
shelter of their Own: Informal Settlement Expansion in A Manal. El-Batran, Greater Cario and Government Responses, Environment and Urbanization, Vol.10, No.7, April 2005.
Shia, Ismail, Habibi, Kiomars, Kamali Nasab, Hamed. (2010). Identification pattern of informal settlements using AHP model in GIS environment (sample: Karaj city), Armanshahr, No. 4, Spring and Summer 2010, 85-75 .
Shokooei, Hossein. (2003). New Thoughts in the Philosophy of Geography: Environmental Philosophy and School of Geographical Schools, First Edition, Volume 2, Gita Shenasi Publications.
Shokooi, Hossein. (2007). New Perspectives on Urban Geography, Volume One, Tehran, Samat Publications, 2007
Soleimani, Mohammad, Ahmad, Reza., Kalani Fard. (2009). An Introduction to the Basics of Urban Planning, Jihad Daneshgahi Publications, Tarbiat Moallem University.
Turner, John. F.C. (2015). Housing Priorities, Settlement Pattern, and Urba Development in Modernizing Countries, AIP Journal.
Winayanti, Lana, Lang, Heracles C. (2005). Provision of Urban Service in an Informal Settlement: A Case Study of Kampung Oens Tanggul, Jakarta, Habitat International 28.
Zahed, Zahedani., Saeed. (2009). Marginalization, Shiraz University Press.
Ahlqvist, Toni. (2008). Key to Future: Societal Reflection on Developing Key Technologies and their Impact on Human Qualification, Ministry of Trade and Industry, Helsinki, July.
Zebardast, Esfandiar. (2010). Marginalization of the Urban Poor and the Expansion of the Spontaneous Settlement on the Tehran Metropolitan Fringe, Cities, Article in Press.
Ziari, Keramatollah, Azardokht, Nozari. (2009). Organizing and Empowering the Informal Settlement of Ahvaz (Water Resources Alley), Human Geographical Research, Vol. 41, No. 68, pp. 21-36.
Asgari, Tabatabai, Assadollah. (2014). A Brief Study of the Phenomenon of Surrounding Tissues or Marginalization in Iran, Haft Shahr Quarterly, Third Year, Issue 8, Summer.
Athari, Kamal. (2003). Assessing the Structural and Institutional Factor in Iran, Proceedings of the Marginalization and Informal Settlement, Volume 1, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences.
Ben (Newsletter of the Association of Architectural and Urban Planning Engineers), National Document for Empowering and Organizing Informal Settlement, Year 9, No. 32-33.
Davoodpour, Zohreh. (2013). Tehran metropolis and car settlements, Tehran, Publications of Urban Studies and Architecture Studies and Research Center, first edition, summer.