Energy crops safe cultivation on drained organic soils
I.T. Slyusar, O.P. Solyanik, V.O. Serbenyuk, E.V. Zadubinna, S.V. Perets
The development of alternative energy is one way to solve the global problem of our time - the energy crisis. Countries in Europe and around the world already have hundreds of thousands of hectares of energy plantations. Ukraine also has significant areas of energy plantations of wood and herbaceous crops. However, there are many environmental issues with the creation of energy plantations. These are soil and climatic conditions and the ecological safety of their cultivation technology. Studies conducted by us on remote by treatment drained organogenic soils of the Supiy River floodplain (Panfilsky Research Station of NSC "Institute of Agriculture NAAS", Ukraine) showed that the plantation cultivation of Giant miscanthus, Almond-leaved willow, Basket willow, Gray willow, and poplar hybrids in 2016-2020, in terms of annual biomass inputs is about 24.9-25.7 tons per 1 ha of dry weight on average. Regarding the safety of cultivation technologies, we have found that under drained old-fallow soils, mineralization of organic matter and accumulation of mobile nitrogen in the active layer of soil under miscanthus plantations and annual crops (267-324 mg per 100 ha of dry soil) is intense, while tree plantations had the lowest indicators (57-120 mg). The content of mobile phosphorus and potassium was highest in tree crop plantations, respectively, 106-172 and 224-462 mg. Their soil content with miscanthus plantations and annual crops were, respectively, 52-66 and 91-171 mg per 100 soil. A significant influence on the content of elements was the process of high total evaporation by tree crop plantations and entering together with capillary water of the bedrock, rich in various mineral compounds, into the active layer of soil. We have found that the creation of wood (willow and poplar) energy plantations on drained old-fallow organogenic soils provides environmentally safe and efficient use, prevents intensive mineralization of the organic mass of peat, and contributes to a significant reduction of pollution of ground and river water by nutrients.
Keywords: willow, soils, organogenic, crops, tree crops, energy crops, mineralization of peat, drained lands, fertility, cultivation technology, poplar
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