Estimation of quality of surface water of Dniester river basin within Lviv and Khmelnytsk regions
B. M. Kalyn, M. V. Khromova, V. Ia. Vishchur, H. A. Butsiak, S. I. Kropyvka, B. V. Gutyj
The problem of deterioration of the ecological condition of river basins of Ukraine is extremely important. Particular attention is paid to transboundary rivers, which include the Dniester River. The article describes the physical and geographical conditions of the Dniester basin, analyzes the scale of water use and discharge of return water in to the surface reservoirs in the basin. The use of water resources of the basin by different sectors of the economy is studied. 50% in Lviv region and 72% in Khmelnytsk region of abstracted water is used for commercial and drinking purposes, respectively 30% and 25% - for production. The largest sources of river basin pollution within Lviv and Khmelnytsk regions are considered. The main pollutants of surface water bodies in Lviv region in terms of the amount of effluents are enterprises of housing and communal services, enterprises of heat and power, chemical and petrochemical, machine-building and food industries. Among the enterprises of Khmelnytsk region, the largest volumes of wastewater discharges are carried out by the enterprises of heat and power, housing and communal services, food and construction industries. It is established that the major factors influencing the deterioration of surface in the river basin are disposals of sewage. The ecological danger from hydrosphere pollution in the Dniester basin has been assessed on the basis of pollutant concentrations. The results of monitoring water pollution in the river Dniester basin testified that the main pollutants that exceed the level compared to the maximum permissible concentration are nitrites, and for its tributaries river Lug and river Smotrych also ammonium salt, nitrates, sulfates and phosphates. As a result of a comprehensive assessment of the water quality of the river basin, the characteristics assigned to them are weakly and moderately polluted. Except for pollution of water objects, the urgent problem demanding the solution is the acting landscape structure in the basin of river Dniester. The disturbed structure of territories is the result of excessive agricultural land use and reduction of the area of natural lands. We came up with the priority tasks are to minimize the discharges of polluted return water into the water bodies, to improve the economic mechanism of water use and implement of water protection measures, to optimize the landscape-ecological structure of the territory, in particular increase the areas of nature reserve fund.
Key words: surface water, the Dniester River basin, tributary, water service, pollution, water quality, landscape structure.
Afanasiev-Chuzhbynskyi, O.S. (2016). Narysy Dnistra. Lviv: Apriori (in Ukrainian).
Borshch, O.O., Gutyj, B.V., Borshch, O.V., Sobolev, O.I., Chernyuk, S.V., Rudenko, O.P., Kalyn, B.M., Lytvyn, N.A., Savchuk, L.B., Kit, L.P., Nahirniak, T.B., Kropyvka, S.I., & Pundyak, T.O. (2020). Environmental pollution caused by the manure storage. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 10(3), 110-114. doi: 10.15421/2020_142
Bovsunivska, V. (2014). Landshaftna struktura Khmelnytskoi oblasti. Visnyk Lvivskoho universytetu. Seriia heohrafichna, 48, 68–74 (in Ukrainian).
Grynevych, N., Sliusarenko, A., Dyman, T., Sliusarenko, S., Gutyj, B., Kukhtyn, M., Hunchak, V., & Kushnir, V. (2018). Etiology and histopathological alterations in some body organs of juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) at nitrite poisoning. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 8(1), 402–408. doi: 10.15421/2018_228
Hnatiuk R. (2017). Desiat pozytsii za richkove pokhodzhennia verkhnikh (supishchano-suhlynystykh) horyzontiv pleistotsenovykh teras Ukrainskoho Peredkarpattia ta serednoho Prydnisteria (chastyna 4). Problemy heomorfolohii i paleoheohrafii Ukrainskykh Karpat i prylehlykh terytorii, 7, 85-101 (in Ukrainian).
Honcharova, O.V., Paranjak, R.P., & Gutyj, B.V. (2019). Functional state of an organism of freshwater fish under the influence of abiotic factors. Scientific Messenger of Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Agricultural sciences, 21(90), 82–87. doi: 10.32718/nvlvet-a9014
Iatsyk, A. V. (2004). Vodohospodarska ekolohiia. Kiev. Heneza (in Ukrainian).
Kalyn, B. M., Dziana, H. O., & Cherevko, M. V. (2011). Ekolohichni zakony i pravove rehuliuvannia okhorony dovkillia: navch. posib. Lviv. Lviv regional Institute of State Management of National Academy of State Management (in Ukrainian).
Khilchevskyi, V. K., Honchar, O. M., & Zabokrytska, M. R. (2013). Hidrokhimichnyi rezhym ta yakist poverkhnevykh vod baseinu Dnistra na terytorii Ukrainy. Kiev. Nika-Tsentr (in Ukrainian).
Krainiukov, O. M., & Timchenko, V. D. (2016). Udoskonalennia kompleksnoi otsinky ekolohichnoho stanu ta yakosti vody vodnykh obiektiv. Visnyk KhNU imeni V.N. Karazina. Seriia “Ekolohiia”, 14, 9-14 (in Ukrainian).
Melnychuk, V. P., & Protsiv, H. P. (2019). Nastanova z upravlinnia baseinamy malykh richok – prytok richky Dnister: metod. posibn. Lviv: Spolom (in Ukrainian).
Metodyka rozrakhunku koefitsiienta zabrudnenosti pryrodnykh vod: KND 126.96.36.199-2003 Orhanizatsiia ta zdiisnennia sposterezhen za zabrudnenniam poverkhnevykh vod (v systemi Minekoresursiv). No89-M 04.06.2003. Kiev, 25–30 (in Ukrainian).
Paraniak, R. P., Voitovych, N. V., & Kalyn, B. M. (2014). Systema upravlinnia vodnymy resursamy u Lvivskii oblasti. Nauk. visnyk LNUVMBT imeni S.Z. Gzhytskoho, 16, 3(60), 386-393 (in Ukrainian).
Paranjak, R.P., Kalyn, B.M., & Gutyj, B.V. (2019). Prospects of transgenic plants in the agro-sphere of Lviv region. Scientific Messenger of Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Agricultural sciences, 21(90), 54–58. doi: 10.32718/nvlvet-a9009
Pylypovoch, O. V., & Kovalchuk, I. P. (2017). Heoekolohiia richkovo-baseinovoi systemy verkhnoho Dnistra: monohrafiia. Lviv-Kyiv: LNU imeni Ivana Franka (in Ukrainian).
Rudenko, O.P., Paranjak, R.P., Kovalchuk, N.A., Kit, L.P., Hradovych, N.I., Gutyj, B.V., Kalyn, B.M., Sukhorska, O.P., Butsiak A.A., Kropyvka S.I., Petruniv V.V., & Kovalska L.M. (2019). Influence of seasonal factors on carp fish immune reactivity. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 2019, 9(3), 168-173
Tomiltseva, A. I., Yatsyk, A. V., & Mokin, V. B. (2017). Ekolohichni osnovy upravlinnia vodnymy resursamy. Kiev. Instytut ekolohichnoho upravlinnia ta zbalansovanoho pryrodokorystuvannia (in Ukrainian).