Ethnobotany of the Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous Communities in the Mountain of Shishikoh Valley, Hindukush Chitral
K. Ullah, G.M. Shah, J. Alam, M. Hussain
Background: Communities of the valley may cause restricted health conveniences and nutrient deficit, often caused various human disorders. Since centuries, however, the local communities in these areas have developed traditional method of treating various sickness and local food capes that can be significance for public health and nutrient facilities. However lack of herbal based research and geographical restrictions, the traditional knowledge is in risk. So this study is the first was intended to document the traditional knowledge in of the local people in the Shishikoh valley, Chitral Northern Pakistan.
Method: Ethno-botanical data were collected over a period from July, 2016 to October, 2017 from respondents, by using semi structured questionnaire. Details about the local uses of plants species were documentalong with demographic characterestics of the visit communities. Quantitative indices such as relative frequency citation (RFCs), fidelity level (FL) tools were intended to evaluate the cultural importance of the reported species.
Results: In total 50 plant species belonging to 34 families and 48 genera were recorded. Fabaceae was dominant with 7 species, followed by Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Rosacea (6 species each). Leaves, root, flowers, seeds and fruits were the frequently utilized plant parts, whereas among drug formulations, decoction (49%) was ranked first. Majority of the plant species were used to treat abdominal, respiratory and dermal ailments (31, 12 and 12, respectively). RFCs value ranged 0.477 to 0.11 for Tanacetum falconeri and Allium carolinianum, respectively; while Hippophe rhamnoides and Thymus linearis depicted 100% FL. Comparative assessment with previous reports revealed that traditional uses of 26% plant species counting Hedyserum falconeri, Aconitum violoceum var. weileri, Arnebia guttata, Biebersteinia odora, Clematis alpine var. sibirica, Corydalis adiantifolia and Saussurea simpsoniana were reported for the first time.
Conclusion: The mountainous valley in the Northern Pakistan host significance traditional knowledge of local food and homoeopathic plant species, which need to reevaluated and reconsider by pharmacologist and health community. Additionally, the livelihood could be reinforced through launching collection sites, revolution and freshening centers for marketing of medicinal plant species.
Keywords: Medicinal plants; Shishikoh Valley; Hindukush Chitral
Abbasi A.M., Khan M.A., Shah M.H., Shah MM., Pervez A., Ahmad M. (2013). Ethnobotanical appraisal and cultural values of medicinally important wild edible vegetables of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 9:84.
Abbasi, A.M., Shah, M.H., T.Li, Fu . X, Guo X, R.H. Liu. (2015). Ethnomedicinal values, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of wild culinary vegetables. Ethnopharmacol.;162:333–45.
Abbas, Z. (2012). "Floristic diversity, cultural uses and phytosociology of Tormic valley Baltistan". M. phil Thesis, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan.
Afolayan, A, F. Jimoh. (2008). Nutritional quality of some wild leafy vegetables in South Africa. Int J Food Sci;Nutrit.;60 (5):424–31.
Akbar, S. (2014). Background Of Shishi Valley (Shishikhoh WUMP Database) C DF- W4L project-IC.
Ali S, M. Qaiser. (1986). A phytogeographical analysis of the phanerogams of Pakistan and Kashmir. In: Proc Royal Soc Edinburgh B. 1986: Cambridge Univ Press. 89–101
Ali S. I.2 (008).. Significance of Flora with special reference to Pakistan; Pak. J. Bot. 40 (3):967-971. Ali. H and M. Qaiser, (2009). The Ethnobotany of Chitral Valley, Pakistan with Particular reference to Medicinal Plants pak. j. bot., 41 (4): 2009-2041, 2009.
Ali & Qaiser (Eds). (1993-2010). Flora of pakistan Nos. (194-219).
Ali, H. (2003). Trade of Medicinal plant in Mingora City. MSc. Thesis Department of Botany, Government Postgraguate College, Bannu.
Ali, H, H. Ahmad and M. Yousuf. (2003). Trade f local medicinal plants in Mingora city. Shop on in: Proceeding of work conservation and sustainable uses of Medicinal and aromstic plants of Pakistan.
Ali, S. I & Y. J. Nasir (Eds) (1989-1991). Flora of Pakistan, Nos; (191-193) Karachi & Islaabad.
Ali. H & M. Qaiser (Eds) 1993-2007. Flora of Pakistan Nos. (194-215). Karachi.
Ali, H. (2009). Floristic studies of chitral. Threatened plants and conservation strategies, University of Karachi in the fulfillment of the requirement for the degree. “Doctor of philosophy” Department of botany University of Karachi, Karachi, 2009.
Alonson, A, F. Dalmeier, E. Granek and P. Raven. (2001. Biodiversity: Connecting with the
Tpastry of life, Smithsonian institude/monitoring and Assesment of Biodiversity Programe and President, s Comittee of Advisor on Science and Technology Charter Printing, Washington DC, USA.
Asase, A, A. A. Oteng-Yeboah, G.T. Odamtten. (2005). Simmonds MS. Ethnobotanical study of some Ghanaian anti-malarial plants. J Ethnopharmacol. ; 99 (2): 273–9.
Asad, A. Rashid and N. Parveen, (2014) Medicinal Plants Used in the Isolate Region of Bumburate, Kalash Valley, District, Chitral, Pakistan. Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res., 20 (3): 359-373, 2014.Awan, M.R, M. Shah, G. Akbar & S. Ahmad. (2001).Traditionally Uses of Economically
Important Plants of Chitral District, Malakand Division, NWFP Pakistan. Pakistan museum of Natural History, Islamabad, Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot.33.
Balick, M. J, P.A. Cox. (1996). Plants, people, and culture: the science of ethnobotany: Scientific American Library, New York.
Bano, Z, A. Begum and K. Bano. (2013). Ethno-Botanical Studies of Some Seleted Plants in Mastuj, Chitral Valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhaw,2013.. Canadian Journal of Applied Sciences. 1 (3): 413- 426.
Cornara L, La Rocca A, S. Marsili, M. Mariotti. (2009). Traditional uses of plants in the Eastern Riviera (Liguria, Italy). J Ethnopharmacol.2009; 125 (1):16–30.
Ermias Lulekal, Z.A. Kelbessa E, P.V. Damme. (2011). Wild edible plants in Ethiopia: a review on their potential to combat food insecurity. Afrika Focus.;24:71–121.
Fransworth, N. R and Soejarto. (1991). Global importance of Medicinal Plant. In. O., Akerel, V. H. Wood and H. Synge, Eds.: The conservation of Medicinal plant; Proceeding of an international consultation 21-27 March 1988, Cheang Mai, Thailand Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, pp.25-51.
Hadi, F and M. Ibrar. (2014). Ethnobotanical Profile of Gymnospermic Flora of Kalash Valley, District Chitral, Hindo-Kush Range, Pakistan. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 14 (12): 1405-1408, 2014
Hadi,F, I. Aziz, Muhammad, D. Ghulam, A. Muhammad, N. Khalid and A. Muhammad. (2014). Weed Diversity in Wheat and Maize with special reference to their Ethnomedicinal Uses at Rech Valley, Hindokush range, Chitral, Pakistan. Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res., 20 (3): 335-346, 2014
Hasrat,M. H. (2007). Baltistan Tehzeeb-o-Saqafat. Baltistan Book Point and Publications Naya Bazar Skardu. Hussain.F , M. Shah and H. Sher. (2007). Traditionnal Resource Evaluation of Some Plants of Mastuj,District Chitral, Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot., 39 (2): 339-354.
Kifayat, U, J. Alam, H. Ali, H. Ahmad and S. Muhammad. (2017). The Traditional Knowledge of Some Phanerogames of Mulkhow - Valley District Chitral. Science Arena Publications Specialty Journal of Biological Sciences Available online at www.sciarena.com 2017, Vol, 3 (2): 16-31.
Khan, A. (2005). Joint forest management plan Madaklasht Valley Chitral (Qashqar Conservancy). Technical Report Prepared for Pakistan Mountain Areas Conservation project. IUCN-Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan.25.
Khan, A. A. (1996). Ethnobotany with particular reference to medicinal plants of upper Chitral Region. Proc. Ethnobotany workshop NARC, Islamabad.
Khan. N, M. Ahmed, A. Ahmed, S. S. Shaukat, M. Wahab, M. Ajaib, M.F. Siddiqui and M. Nasir. (2011). Important Medicinal Plants of Chitral Gol National Park (cgnp) Pakistan Pak. J. Bot., 43 (2): 797-809.
Khan, S.W. and S. Khatoon. (2007). Ethnobotanical studies on useful trees and shrubs of Haramosh and Bugrote Valleys, in Gilgit northern areas of Pakistan. Pak J Bot.;
Khan, A, T. Akhtar, Ambreen, Obaid, S. K. Shereni, I. Ahmad and I. Hussain. (2013). Medicinal Value and Bio Efficacy of Important Traditional Plants of Garum Chashma Valley,Chitral. Phamaceutical research and Bio science Vol 2 (4); 207-226.
Lemieux C.J, P.F. Eagles, D.S. Slocombe, S.T. Doherty, S.J. Elliott, S..E. Mock. (2012). Human health and well-being motivations and benefits associated with protected area experiences: An opportunity for transforming policy and management in Canada. Parks;18 (1):71–85.
Liwington, A. (1990). Plant for people. Natural History Museum Publication, London. Map of Chitral https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=map+of+chitral&FORM=HDRSC2.
Mesfin, K, G. Tekle, T. Tesfay. (2013). Assessment of threatening factors of medicinal plant species in Samre district, south-eastern Tigray, northern Ethiopia. J Med Plants;1 (4):38–42.
Mukarram, S and F. Hussain. (2012). Ethnomedicinal plant wealth of Mastuj valley, Hindukush range, District Chitral, Pakistan. Department of Botany, University of Peshawar, Pakistan. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 6 (26), pp. 4328-4337, 11 July, 2012
Muthul, C, A. Muniappan, R. Nagappan, I. Savarimuthu. (2006). Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed.;2:43.
Nasir, E, S. I. Ali, R.R. Stewart. (1972). Flora of West Pakistan: An annotated catalogue of the vascular plants of West Pakistan and Kashmir. Fakhri, Karachi, Pakistan; 1972
Nüsser, M, W.B. Dickoré. (2002). A tangle in the triangle: vegetation map of the eastern Hindukush (Chitral, northern Pakistan). Erdkunde, 37–59.
Sher, H. (2002). Some medicinal and economic plants of Mahodand, Utror, Gabral Valleys (district Swat), Gabur,Shinwari Z. K & M. Qaiser. (2011). Effect on conservation & sustainable use of Medicinal plant
of Pakistan, Pak. J. Bot. 43: 5-10. Shinwari ZK, Qaisar M. Efforts on conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants of Pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2011;43:5–10
Siraj , A, H. Ali, H. Beg, A Ahmad Dasti and Z. K. Shinwari (2006). EthnobotanicaL Studies On Some Medicinal Plants of Booni Valley, District Chitral Pakistan . Pak. J. weed Sci,Rs. 12 (3); 183-190. 2006.
Silva, F. S, M.A. Ramos, N. Hanazaki, U.P. Albuquerque. (2011). Dynamics of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in a rural community in the Brazilian semi-arid region. Revista Bras de Farmacog;21 (3):382–91.
Western, D. (2001). Human-modified ecosystems and future of evolution. PNAS 98 (10): 5458-5465.
Woondruff, D. S. (2001). Declines of Biomes and Biotas, the future of evolution, Colloquium. 98 : 5471-5476.
Zabta, K.S, T. watanabe, M. rehman, T. yoskikawa. (2006). Pictorial guide of medicinal plants of Pakistan. Kohat university of science and technology kohat.