Ethology and features of the trophic activity of blood-sucking mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in the southern taiga of the Tyumen region
In the Tyumen region (Russia), the daily rhythm of mosquitoes’ trophic activity in terms of comparing the number of individuals attacking humans and animals and the distribution of mosquitoes near cattle herds has not been studied before. The research was carried out in the sub-zone of the southern taiga forest zone of the Tyumen region in 2016-2017. The southern taiga has a high level of blood-sucking mosquitoes. In June, under the canopy of the forest, the animals are subjected to a massive round-the-clock attack, but in the daily rhythm of the trophic activity of these insects there are evening (at 23 hours) and morning (at 3-7 hours) rises in numbers. At the end of July, the daily rhythm has a high evening rise in numbers (at 21-23 hours) and a slight morning (at 5-7 hours). In open pastures, mosquito activity is less long and is characterized by one large maximum in the evening. Mosquitoes attacked animals in open areas only at night from 23 to 7 hours. The number of mosquitoes attacking calves in open areas was low and lower than the average of 2.2 ± 0.23 times per person. The nature of the daily rhythm of trophic activity of flying hematophages leaves its mark on the behavior of animals and their preference for certain biotopes on the pasture. With the number of mosquitoes observed during the day in the forest (from 2 to 32 individuals), calves preferred to graze in the open area, even with a high number of horseflies, only periodically hiding in more often shrubbery for a short time. At night, the calves are kept in the paddock, snuggling up to each other, which allows to some extent to limit the number of attacking insects. In the paddock during the night rest of the animals the largest number of mosquitoes (over 66%) flies directly near the calves at an altitude from the ground up to 1.9 meters, but single individuals are found at an altitude of more than 4 meters, a distance of 5-7 meters from calves the number of mosquitoes decreases twice, and 25-30 meters - 4 times. The high concentration of mosquitoes around the animals indicates the advisability of taking protective measures against their attack when keeping calves in open pens on pastures in the evening, when keeping animals at night in premises, treatment with repellents and insecticides should be carried out in the morning before pasture. This will allow to ensure calm and free behavior of animals during grazing and a wider coverage of various pasture biotopes.
Keywords: Culicidae, blood-sucking mosquitoes, trophic activity, southern taiga, young cattle
Anufrieva, V.N. (1971). Biology and Ecology of Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in the South-eastern Part of the Zaisan Basin, their Possible Epidemiological Importance and the Prerequisites for Control Measures. PhD Abstract. Moscow.
Bukshtinov, V.I. (1966). Fauna and ecology of blood-sucking two-winged insects in the southern Tyumen region. In: Problems of veterinary sanitation: Works of VNIIVS, 23, 309-310.
Bukshtynov, V.I. (1962). The Species Composition and Ecology of Mosquitoes in the Southwest of the Tyumen Region In: Problems of veterinary sanitation: Works of VNIIVS, 20, 122-133.
Chernyshev, V.B. (1981). The relationship of daily rhythms of insect activity. In: Questions of General Entomology: Proceedings of the All-Union Entomological Society, 63, 159-162.
Detinova, T.S., Rasnitsyn, S.P., Markovich, N.Ya., Kupriyanova, E.S., Aksenova, A.S., Anufrieva, V.N., Bandin, A.I., Vinogradskaya, O.N., Zharov, A.A. (1978). Unification of census methods of blood-sucking Diptera. Medical parasitology and parasitic diseases. 5, 84-92.
Ermakova, R.M. (1972). Mosquitoes (fauna and ecology) of the oil and gas-producing areas of the Tyumen region and the environmental justification of measures to combat them. PhD Abstract. Moscow.
Khlyzova, T. A. (2018). Features of the daily dynamics of trophic activity of various types of blood-sucking mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in the south of Tyumen region. Biosystems Diversity, 26(2), 123–127. doi:10.15421/011819
Khlyzova, ?.?., Latkin, S.V. (2015). Daily rhythm of activity of blood-sucking mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in the conditions of the south of the Tyumen region. Tyumen State University Herald. Natural Resource Use and Ecology, 1(3), 137-143.
Konstantinov, S.A. (1990). Features blind and mosquito attacks on cattle in the pastures of the northwest RSFSR. PhD Abstract. Leningrad. 25 p.
Kukharchuk, L.P. (1966). Blood-sucking mosquitoes (Culicuinae) Priobya. In: Biological principles of the control of blood-sucking Diptera in the Ob River basin. Novosibirsk: Nauka.
Kukharchuk, L.P. (1969). Blood-sucking diptera (Diptera, Nematocera) Nizhnevartovsky oil and gas district of Western Siberia. Izvestia of the SB of the USSR Academy of Sciences. 15(3), 99-103.
Kukharchuk, L.P. (1972). Blood-sucking mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicinae) of Western Siberia. Proceedings of the International Entomological Congress. Leningrad: Nauka.
Kukharchuk, L.P. (1981). The ecology of blood-sucking mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of Siberia. Novosibirsk: Nauka.
Mirzaeva, A.G. (1989). Blood-sucking midges of Siberia and Far East. Novosibirsk: Nauka.
Monchadsky, A.S. (1946). Attack activity and its daily rhythm at the Mansonia richiardii Fic mosquito. Izvestia of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 2-3, 299-323.
Monchadsky, A.S. (1950). The attack of mosquitoes on humans in natural conditions of the Subarctic and the factors that regulate it. In: Collected papers on parasitology, 12, 123–166.
Monchadsky, A.S. (1956). Mosquito attack on humans in the seaside part of the Volga Delta. Parasitological collection ZIN AS USSR, 16, 89-144.
Monchadsky, A.S. (1958). On the classification of environmental factors. Zoological journal. 5, 680-692.
Pavlov, S.D., Pavlova, R.P. (2001). State of research and prospects for protecting animals from midges and pasture flies. In: Problems of entomology and arachnology: A collection of scientific works of VNIIVEA, 43, 181-193.
Petrozhitskaya, L.V. (1987). Midges of the northern forest-tundra of Yamal. In: Ecology and geography of arthropods of Siberia. Novosibirsk: Nauka.
Rasnitsyn, S.P., Kosovskikh, V.P. (1979). An improved method for accounting for the abundance of mosquitoes with a butterfly net around a person and comparing it with the ‘dark bell’ method. Medical parasitology and parasitic diseases. 1, 18–24.
Skriptchenko, F.A. (2000). The current state of the fauna and ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in the center of the Russian european part. PhD Abstract. Moscow.
Volik, G.N. (1967). Blood-sucking mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicinae) in the Kizlyar district of Dagestan In: Problems of veterinary sanitation: Works of VNIIVS, 28, 306-312.