Features of histolism and hystogenesis in the vital temperature range in the organism of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) in the postembrional period
Yu. Kovalskyi, A. Gucol, B. Gutyj, O. Sobolev, L. Kovalska, A. Mironovych
The productivity of bee families depends to a large extent on the influence of exogenous factors. The most important ones include: the presence of a honey-bearing base, climatic conditions, temperature of the environment, etc. It significantly affects the growth of families and the stability of the microclimate in the nest. The welcome temperature range in the postembryonic period fluctuates within 30–38 °С. Therefore, the purpose of the work was to find out the physiological and biochemical peculiarities of the adaptation of the body of honeybee bees under the influence of the lowered temperature in the nest. For research, two groups of honeybees were selected that differed in terms of maintenance. The control group was constantly in the nest of the bee family, and the experimental at the stage of the prepupa was placed in a thermostat where the temperature was maintained at 32 °С. Materials for researches were tissues of prepupa and pupa. The method of thin-layer chromatography identifies the classes of lipids, phospholipids and cholesterol. Based on the performed researches, it was found that the violation of the optimal parameters of the microclimate in the post-embryonal period affects the increase in the weight of the prepupa of the body by 19.4% (P < 0.001) and the decrease in the intensity of the processes of dehydration in tissues by 63.8% (P < 0.05), which is associated with the accumulation of bound water in cells. It is proved that the decrease of the optimum temperature of the incubation of the breeding breed at 2 °С leads to prolongation of the post-embryonic development period by 35–42 hours. Under such conditions, throughout the period of incubation in bees, high levels of total lipids are observed. At the stage of prepupa, the number of triacylglycerols in the lipids increases by 49.0% (P < 0.001). In ontogenesis in pupa tissues, a gradual decrease in the content of triacylglycerols, including the imaging stage, is evidently due to the effect of the stress factor. It was found that lowering the temperature on the second day of incubation of the breeding plant reduces the content of phospholipids in the lipid tissues by 11.9% (P ˂ 0.05). At the same time, the decrease in the content of lysophosphatidylcholine was detected by 6.6% (P < 0.001). The violation of the optimum temperature during the development of bees leads to a steady increase in the content of esterified cholesterol by an average of 47.9% (P < 0.01). In the process of pupa formation, the ratio of classes of esterified cholesterol is changing. The conducted studies allow to correct the metabolic processes in the body of honey bees in order to adapt them to the lowered temperatures.