Floral diversity and phytosociological studies on vegetation of agror valley, district Mansehra
The present study was conducted in Agror Valley in order to explore the species diversity and vegetation structure. A total of 142 species which belonged to 124 genra and 66 families were recorded. Asteraceae was the leading family with 17 species followed by Rosaceae 12 species, Lamiaceae 09 species and Polygonaceae 06 species. Based on plant growth habit, herbaceous growth form dominated the study area with 96 species (67.60%), followed by trees with 29 species (20.42%) and shrubs 17 (11.97%) species. Biological spectrum showed that therophyte was dominant life class represented with 61 plant species (42.95%), followed by Megaphanerophytes and Hemicryptophytes 20 species (14.08%) each. Microphyll flora was the leading leaf size spectra with 73 species (51.40%), followed by Mesophyll 32 (22.53%), Nanophyll 26 (18.30%), Leptophylls 10 (7.04%) species and Megaphyll contributing 1 species (0.70%). Seasonal variation of species diversity disclosed that two flowering seasons were recorded, one from May to August during which 137 (96.47%) plant species showed flowering and second from September to November in which 5 (3.52%) plant species flowered. Maximum flowering (42 plant species) occurred during the month of March while May to August were the peak fruiting months in the study area. This study will help botanists, conservationists, ecologists, and policy makers to improve, protect and manage the present vegetation status and sustainably for future generations.