Histological study of embryo formation in Tribulus terrestris from harmal spin


F.M. Shojaii, M. Aliasgarpoor, E.M. Kazemi

Embryo development occurs continuously in plants, but for better description, the following steps are considered: Pre-embryonic stage, spherical stage, cardiac stage, spinal-shaped stage, and eventually adult embryo. The study of embryonic development and development of endosperm in various plant genes is very important for phylogenetic and systematic studies. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the histological evolution of fetal development in Tribulus terrestris from Harmal spin using optical light microscopy methods. The ovaries and fruits of this plant were collected from nature and fixed in the FAA fixer. In the next step, the fixed samples were studied by different Histological and the Histochemical methods. According to histological and Histomorphological studies, the symmetric Dicotyledon of the egg cell led to the formation of an apical and basal cell. Divisions occurred in the basal cell faster than the apical cell and a filamentous suppository was produced. The embryo was formed as a result of divisions in the apical cell. The suspensor disappeared in the throat embryo stage. Mature embryo was 3.5 mm long. Based on histological studies, endosperm was a nuclear material that had no storage material during embryonic development. With the growth of the embryo of the endosperm cells and their cell walls became close. In the mature embryo stage, endosperm was found in the shape of a tubular structure around the section and between us in it.

Keywords: Endosperm; Tribulus terrestris from Harmal spin; chemical hysteresis; FAA fixer

Akhyani, K. H. (2000). Flora of Iran. Forestry and pasture Research. 7(1), 10-15.
Batygina, T. B. (2006). Embryology of flowering plants: Terminology and concepts, vol. 2. Seed. Science Publishers, Enfield, New Hampshire, USA.
Decraene, L. R., De Laet, J., & Smets, E. F. (1996). Morphological studies in Zygophyllaceae. II. The floral development and vascular anatomy of Peganum harmala. American Journal of Botany, 201-215.
Dourado, F., Vasco, P., Gama, F. M., Coimbra, M. A., & Mota, M. (2000). Characterisation of Rosa Mosqueta seeds: cell wall polysaccharide composition and light microscopy observations. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 80(13), 1859-1865.
Fukuda, Y. (1982). Morphological and anatomical studies inTribulus terrestris. The botanical magazine= Shokubutsu-gaku-zasshi, 95(2), 183-194.
Lee, Y. I., Yeung, E. C., Lee, N., & Chung, M. C. (2006). Embryo development in the lady's slipper orchid, Paphiopedilum delenatii, with emphasis on the ultrastructure of the suspensor. Annals of botany, 98(6), 1311-1319.
Lersten, N. R. (2004). Flowering plant embryology stamen and androecium. Victoria, Australia: Wiley Blackwell. DOI: https://doi. org/10.1002/9780470752685.
Sornsathapornkul, P., & Owens, J. N. (1999). Ultrastructure and histochemistry of the ovule, fertilization, and formation of the zygote in a tropical Acacia hybrid (Acacia mangium Willd.× Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth.). International journal of plant sciences, 160(2), 229-240.
Tobe, H. (1989). The embryology of angiosperms: its broad application to the systematic and evolutionary study. The botanical magazine= Shokubutsu-gaku-zasshi, 102(2), 351-367.
West, M., & Harada, J. J. (1993). Embryogenesis in higher plants: an overview. The Plant Cell, 5(10), 1982.

Share this article