Increasing the efficiency of moisture resources in crop rotation by tillage optimization in Ukrainian Steppe zone
Peculiarities of the formation of moisture reserves in the soil and the dynamics of moisture supply of different biotechnogenic landscapes were studied in a grain-fallow-row tillage 5-field crop rotation in a stationary field experiment. We found the most significant moisture accumulation capacity at moldboard plowing, which decreased along with the tillage depth reduction. The decrease of moisture reserves in the spring in 0–150 cm soil layer using direct seeding compared to intensive loosening was 8–21 mm. The role of crops as a form factor of soil moisture reserves was more significant in the autumn when the residual water volume was only 34-50 mm. The moisture reserves at the time of maximum seasonal moisture accumulation on recultivated areas using different quarry rocks reached 140-149 mm. Field-protective forest belts had the most significant accumulative capacity concerning moisture. The wetting depth of the arable layer after rains was established by the method of soil hardness control. We determined that the soil's water absorption capacity increased with the deepening of its tillage simultaneously with the increase in all crops' yield by 15.9-32.6%.