Industrial characteristics and consumer properties of Chaenomeles Lindl. fruits


Y. V. Lykholat, N. O. Khromykh, T. Y. Lykholat, O. O. Didur, O. A. Lykholat, T. V. Legostaeva, A. M. Kabar, T. V. Sklyar, V. M. Savosko, I. M. Kovalenko, V. R. Davydov, Yu. V. Bielyk, K. O. Volyanik, A. V. Onopa, K. A. Dudkina, I. P. Grygoryuk

The comparative analysis of the fruit and seed capacity of Chaenomeles Lindl., grew in the botanical garden of the Oles Honchar Dnipro National University, was carried out. It is shown that all studied taxa undergo a complete vegetation cycle. According to our observations, the duration of the growing season is as follows: the smallest in Chaenomeles japonica, the longest in C. × superba and C. maulei, the longest in C. speciosa, C. cathayensis and C. californica. Seed length in Chaenomeles plants ranged from 4.2 ± 0.10 mm (C. japonica var. maulei) to 8.5 ± 0.25 mm (C. сathayensis). Seed widths varied from 4.1 ± 0.32 mm (C. cathayensis) to 11.1 ± 0.10 mm (C. japonica var. maulei). According to the results obtained, the average number of seeds in one fruit of different Chaenomeles species differed, decreasing in the following order: C. cathayensis, C. speciosa > C. × californica > C. × superba > C. japonica > C. japonica var. maulei. Most of the Chaenomeles genus representatives were found to be in a good condition: C. japonica var. maulei vitality was estimated at 7 balls, C. japonica and C. × superba – 6 balls. This index is slightly lower for C. speciosa, C. × californica and C. cathayensis as 5 and 4 balls, respectively. It should be noted that the highest vitality was shown by C. japonica var. maulei, which was introduced in the Botanical Garden of DNU in 1955. In research, considerable attention has been paid to the antioxidant system, which is a powerful mechanism preventing the development of avalanche-free and radical peroxide reactions in living organisms. The antioxidant capacity of Chaenomeles fruits, determined in the range from 565.8 ± 15.7 (C. speciosa) to 1121.7 ± 27.5 (C. cathayensis) mg UAE / 100 g DW, can be considered quite high. The overall antioxidant capacity was highest for C. cathayensis fruits (1121.7 ± 27.5 mg AE / 100 g DW), which exceeded the indexes of other species by 1.2–2.0 times. The presence of antioxidants in raw materials and finished products provides for the prevention of their deterioration, reduction of losses, increase the shelf life and release of high quality products, retaining for a long time the characteristic features inherent in fresh, complete products. High taste qualities are characteristic of C. speciosa and C. × californica. Considering the large assortment of Chaenomeles, representatives differing in their biological, physiological and nutritional properties, we consider it promising to introduce their use in the food industry to obtain functional products with high consumer properties, namely, high content of antioxidants, catering for a variety of dishes or for exotic flavors, as well for direct consumption by the population of useful fruits with different flavors.
Keywords: representatives of Chaenomeles; phenological phases; fruit characterictic; seminal ability; antioxidant system; estimation of taste quality; perspective species
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