Influence of climatic factors on Triticum aestivum L. grains formation in F1 crossing varieties with 1AL.1RS and 1BL.1RS translocations
The paper reveals the study results on soft winter wheat varieties of the V.M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. The findings demonstrate the dependence of grain formation in the first generation of interspecific hybrids of soft winter wheat on the environmental factors and on wheat-rye translocations 1AL.1RS and 1BL.1RS in the parental forms. The results of the analysis of variance show that in the field, the efficiency of crossing and the percentage of grain formation significantly depended on the interaction of factors (47.9%, p ≤ 0.05), weather conditions (32.2%), and the variety genotype (19. 6%) and did not depend significantly (0.3%) on unaccounted factors (the coincidence of flowering dates of the components involved in hybridization). In the crosses 1BL.1RS / 1BL.1RS, the average percentage of grain formation was the highest for three years (2016–2018) and did not differ significantly - 50.1%; 55.5%, and 49.8%. In unfavorable 2019, it was ranked second. The maximum average indicators for the research years (48.3%) and under favorable weather conditions of 2017 (68.3%) were obtained using the crosses of the variety of Svitanok myronivskyi 1BL.1RS as a parent form, and the minimum (37.1 % and 45.2%, respectively) – using the variety of Kalynova 1BL.1RS. The results of the study show that hybrid combinations of Svitanok myronivskyi / Kalynova (56.1%), Lehenda myronivska / Kalynova (54.6%), Zolotokolosa / Svitanok myronivskyi (53.3%), Lehenda myronivska / Ekspromt (52.4%), Kolumbia / Zolotokolosa (48.1%), Svitanok myronivskyi / Lehenda myronivska (47.6%) and Svitanok myronivskyi / Zolotokolosa (46.4%) were the best in terms of the average percentage of grains formation for the research years.