Influence of dust content in milking rooms on operation modes of milking machine pulsators
A.P. Paliy, O.V. Nanka, M.M. Lutcenko, O.A. Naumenko, A.P. Paliy
Biochar, which is rich in aromatic carbon and minerals, is a product of biomass pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 350°C to 1000°C in oxygen-limited environments. In recent years biochar has generated much interest in the field of water treatment in view of low production costs, availability of the feedstock (e.g., lignocellulosic biomass waste) and adsorptive properties. This review incorporates researches on artificial and natural modifications of biochar towards adsorption of potentially toxic elements on biochar. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of recent research findings and theory developments on the existing modifications of biochar for adsorption of potentially toxic elements (i.e., inorganic compounds) from aqueous solutions. Factors affecting adsorption of potentially toxic elements by lignocellulosic biochar and modification techniques for lignocellulosic biochar towards enhanced adsorption of potentially toxic elements were analyzed. The novelty of this study is discussion of the natural modifications of biochar and smart properties of biochar towards adsorption of potentially toxic elements. Recommendations are offered for modifying the lignocellulosic biochar to produce designed, engineered or smart biochar with high adsorption capacity for potentially toxic elements.