Influence of environmental factors of on the structural and functional state of its specific skin gland of Red deer (Cervus elaphus sidiricus Severtzov, 1872)


N.D. Ovcharenko, E.A Kuchina

The influence of the temperature factor on the functional state of the dermal specific gland of the red deer, which manifests its maximum values in the Altai, both the lowest in the winter period and the highest in the summer period of the year. Initially, a detailed description of the structure of the tail gland of the deer is given due to the fact that the classification of skin glands is still controversial, and data on the structure of such structures in real deer are sporadic. Standard histological, morphometric and statistical research methods were used. In determining the functional state of the tail gland, morphometry of its indicators such as the diameter of the alveoli, the height of the glandular epithelium, the diameter of the excretory ducts, the diameter of the nuclei of the glandular cells and their nuclear-cytoplasmotic ratio was performed. Sexual dimorphism of both macroscopic (length and mass of the gland) and micrometric indices is established, and in both adult and young females they are higher than in analogs of males. In the study of seasonal dynamics of morphological parameters of the gland, their significant change was found only in adult females, which allows us to speak about enhancing its functional state in the summer period. The dynamics of the functional state of the gland in females, depending on their physiological state in the winter season, was also revealed. For comparison, selected groups: non-pregnant animals, pregnant, lactating and at the same time pregnant and lactating. It was established that the functional state of the gland at the beginning of pregnancy (its first trimester) does not significantly change compared with non-pregnant animals. Animals of non-pregnant, but lactating iron are functionally more active than non-lactating. The simultaneous effect of lactation and pregnancy does not affect the functional state of the tail red deer

Keywords: Red deer; tail gland; morphological parameters; functional state; environmental factors; pregnancy; lactation; season of the year

Albone, E. S., & Flood, P. F. (1976). The supra caudal scent gland of the red fox Vulpes vulpes. J. Chem. Ecology, 2(2), 167-175.
Atoji, Y., Sugimura, M., & Suzuki, Y. (1989). Sebaceous glands of the infraorbital gland of the Japanese serow Capricornis crispus. J. Submicrosc. Cytology Pathology, 21(2), 375-383.
Atoji, Y., Yamamoto, Y., & Suzuki, Y. (1996). Infraorbital gland of a male Formosan serow Capricornis crispus swinhoei). Eur. J. Morphology, 34(2), 87-94.
Azbukina, M. D. (1970). Specific skin glands of puppies of the American mink (Mustela vison). Collection of Sc. Papers of All-Russian Research Institute for Hunting Economy and Farming, 30, 60-67 (in Russian).
Azbukina, M. D. (1999). The influence of extirpation of specific preanal glands on the body and the reproductive functions of the American mink. Signals of animals. Moscow. Nauka (in Russian).
Bakke, J., & Figenschou, E. (1983). Volatile compounds from the red deer (Cervus elaphus) Secretion from the tail gland. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 9(4), 513-520.
Bondarenko, O. V., Atyasova, O. V., & Tokmakova, S. I. (2000). Comparative analysis of methods for calculating the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio of cells. Questions of theoretical and applied morphology, 5, 61-62 (in Russian).
Didenko, A. A., Dzhandarova, T. I., & Sidorov, Yu. S. (2006). Morphofunctional characteristics of the glomerular zone of the adrenal cortex in hyperparathyroidism in the process of adaptation to changes in the light mode. Morphology, 129(2), 35-41 (in Russian).
Histological and histochemical methods of research. (2015). Ovcharenko, N. D., Kuchina, E.A., Tuzikova, R.V. (ed.). Barnaul. Altai State University Press (in Russian).
Hofmann, R. R., & Thome, H. (1986). Zum funktionellen Morphologie und Mikroarchitectur des Zirkukaudalorgans von Cervus elaphus und C. Nippon. Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschrift, 99(12), 418-424.
Kuchina, E. A., Ovcharenko, N. D., Lunitsyn, V. G., & Teterina, A. V. (2011). Histostructure of the caudal gland of the red deer (Cervus elaphus sibiricus, Severzov, 1872) and its sexual characteristics. Agrarian Science-Agricultural Production of Sibiria, Mongolia, Kazakhstan and Bulgaria: Proceed. XIV Int. Sc. Conf. Krasnoyarsk. Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University (in Russian).
Kuhn, H.-J. (1976). Antorbitaldruse und Tranengang von Neotragus pygmaeus. Z. Saǘgetierkunde, 41(6), 369-380.
Kurosumi, K., Shibasaki, S., & Ito, T. (1984). Cytology of the secretion in mammalian sweat glands. International Review of Cytology, 87, 253-329. DOI: 10.1016/S0074-7696(08)62445-6
Lunitsyn, V. G. (2004). Reindeer husbandry of Russia. Barnaul: Publishing House of All-Russian R&D Institute of Reindeer Herding (in Russian).
Lunitsyn, V. G., Borisov, N. P. (2012). Reindeer Breeding in Russia. Barnaul. ABC (in Russian).
Macdonald, D. W. (1985). The carnivores: order Carnivora (pp. 619-672). In Social Odours in Mammals. Brown, R. E., Macdonald, D. W. (Eds.). Oxford.
Mainoya, J. R. (1978). Histological aspects of the preorbital and interdigital glands of the red duiker (Cephalopus natalensis). East Afr. Wildlife J., 16(4), 265-272.
Mastitsky, S. E. (2009). Methodical manual on the use of the Statistica program in the processing of biological research data. Minsk: RUE “Institute of Fishery” (in Russian).
Ovcharenko, N. D., Bondyreva, L. A., Gribanova, O. G., Vlasova, O. E., & Kudryashova, I. V. (2010). Endocrine regulation of the growth and development of the deer organism. Barnaul. Altai State Agrarian University Press (in Russian).
Ovcharenko, N. D., & Kuchina, E. A. (2012). Age-related features of the macro- and micromorphology of the tail gland of red deer females (Cervus elaphus sibiricus, Severtzov, 1872). Izvesiya of Altai State University, 3 75), 49-52 (in Russian).
Ovcharenko, N. D., Kuchina, E. A., & Ebel, L. B. (2016). Morphometric indicators of the tail red deer gland (Cervus elaphus sibiricus Severzov, 1872), depending on the season of the year and the age of the animal. Altai Zoological Journal, 10, 76-79 (in Russian).
Ovcharenko, N. D., Kuchina, E. A., Semenikhina, N. M., & Chertovskikh, E. E. (2018) Morphometric indicators of the tail gland of the red deer females (Cervus elaphus sibiricus Severrtzov, 1872) depending on the physiological state. Actual problems of biology and Ecology. Proceed. Int. Sci. Conf. Karaganda. Karaganda State University Publishing House (in Russian).
Ovcharenko, N. D., & Rzhanitsyna, I. G.(1998). Some histological indicators and nerve elements of the caudal gland of spotted deer. In Ecology and functional morphology of the skin of mammals. Moscow. Nauka (in Russian).
Richter, J. (1971). Untersuchugen an Antorbitaldrusen von Madoqua (Bovidae, Mammalia). Z. Saǘgetierkunde, 36(6), 334-342.
Richter, J. (1973). Zur Kenntnis der an Antorbitaldrǘsen der Cephalophinae (Bovidae, Mammalia). Z. Saugetierkunde, 38(5), 303-313.
Schaffer, J. (1924). Zur Eiteilung der Hautdrusen. Anat. Anzeiger., 57(18), 353-372.
Schaffer, J. (1940). Die Hautdrǘsenorgane der Saugetiere. Berlin, Urban, Schwarzenberg.
Shabaldash, S. A., & Chernova, O. F. (2006). Hepatoid skin glands of mammals. Moscow. KMK (in Russian).
Silkin, I. I., Popov, A. P. (2012). Histological changes and the content of protein components in musk prepucial glands of males of muskrats at the stages of postnatal ontogenesis. Scientific journal of Kuban State Agrarian University, 78(04), 1-12 (in Russian).
Sokolov, V. E., Angelova, P. A., Evgenieva, T. P., & Baleva, K. P. (1994). Hormonal regulation of the development of specific skin glands of the golden hamster in vivo and in vitro. Structure, growth and some aspects of the hormonal regulation of the development of specific glands. Moscow. Nauka (in Russian).
Sokolov, V. E., & Chernova, O. F. (2001). Skin glands of mammals. Moscow. GEOS (in Russian).
Sokolov, V. Ye. (2002). Selected Works. Vol. 1: Morphology, systematics, faunistics, evolution of mammals. Moscow. Nauka (in Russian).
Sokolov, V. Ye., & Genevskaya, R. N. (1988). Guide to the study of the skin of mammals. Moscow. Nauka (in Russian).
Tosi, G., Vailati, G., Arduino, S., & Paccetti, G. (1990). Morphology and functionality of the supraoccipital glands in the alpine chamois Rucicapra rucicapra rucicapra. Bolletino Zool., 57(2), 131-138.

Share this article