Influence of environmental factors of on the structural and functional state of its specific skin gland of Red deer (Cervus elaphus sidiricus Severtzov, 1872)
N.D. Ovcharenko, E.A Kuchina
The influence of the temperature factor on the functional state of the dermal specific gland of the red deer, which manifests its maximum values in the Altai, both the lowest in the winter period and the highest in the summer period of the year. Initially, a detailed description of the structure of the tail gland of the deer is given due to the fact that the classification of skin glands is still controversial, and data on the structure of such structures in real deer are sporadic. Standard histological, morphometric and statistical research methods were used. In determining the functional state of the tail gland, morphometry of its indicators such as the diameter of the alveoli, the height of the glandular epithelium, the diameter of the excretory ducts, the diameter of the nuclei of the glandular cells and their nuclear-cytoplasmotic ratio was performed. Sexual dimorphism of both macroscopic (length and mass of the gland) and micrometric indices is established, and in both adult and young females they are higher than in analogs of males. In the study of seasonal dynamics of morphological parameters of the gland, their significant change was found only in adult females, which allows us to speak about enhancing its functional state in the summer period. The dynamics of the functional state of the gland in females, depending on their physiological state in the winter season, was also revealed. For comparison, selected groups: non-pregnant animals, pregnant, lactating and at the same time pregnant and lactating. It was established that the functional state of the gland at the beginning of pregnancy (its first trimester) does not significantly change compared with non-pregnant animals. Animals of non-pregnant, but lactating iron are functionally more active than non-lactating. The simultaneous effect of lactation and pregnancy does not affect the functional state of the tail red deer
Keywords: Red deer; tail gland; morphological parameters; functional state; environmental factors; pregnancy; lactation; season of the year
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