Influence of fertilization on the formation of grain productivity in different-maturing maize hybrids

Abstract

O. Ivanyshyn, V. Khomina, H. Pantsyreva

Aim. The research aimed to establish the influence of macro- and microfertilizer norms on grain yield and quality of different-maturing maize hybrids and to identify more adapted hybrids for the conditions of the Western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Methods. Methods are field, analytical and statistical. Results. A significant difference in yield between the studied hybrids by Duncan's test was proved; the average factor values were as follows for hybrids: KWS Kumpan 7.76 t/ha, KWS 4484 – 7.97, KWS 381 – 10.31, and KWS 2323 – 10.7 t/ha. We established that in Western Forest-Steppe, it is expedient to grow a medium-early hybrid of corn KWS 2323. This will allow obtaining yields of 10.9–11.1 t/ha with the application of diamophos in spring at the rate of 200–250 kg/ha. We also recommend using medium-ripe hybrid corn KWS 381 for yields of 10.5–10.7 t/ha, with the introduction of diamophos in the spring at a rate of 250–300 kg/ha and fertilization of these hybrids in the phase of 5–7 leaves of corn with microfertilizer "Harvest Grain" at the rate of 3 L/ha. All four hybrids showed a similar tendency in the effect of fertilizer on the weight of 1000 corn grains. Optimal indicators were obtained at increased fertilizer rates - 250 and 300 kg/ha and microfertilizer rates - 2 and 3 L/ha. The weight of 1000 grains in these variants was, respectively, in hybrids: KWS 2323 - 367.5-367.6 grams, KWS Kumpan - 252.3-256.2, KWS 381 - 359.9-361.5, KWS 4484 - 262, 6-262.7 grams. The optimal weight of 1000 grains of 359.9-367.6 grams was characterized by hybrids KWS 2323 and KWS 381. The maximum values of protein content in maize hybrids were recorded on the variants of fertilizer rates of 250 and 300 kg/ha and microfertilizer rates of 2 and 3 L/ha; the figures were: KWS 2323 - 9.5–9.6%, KWS Kumpan - 9.3–9.4%, KWS 381 – 9.4–9.5%, KWS 4484 - 9.9–10.0%. When determining the starch content, the most significant reaction to the increase in the rates of fertilizers and microfertilizers was shown by the hybrid KWS 4484, the indicator on the variants of fertilizers 250 and 300 kg/ha and microfertilizers 2 and 3 L/ha was 77.5-78,0%, which is 1.1-1.6% exceeded control. All variants of the medium-ripe group in terms of starch content exceeded the hybrids of the medium-early group.

Keywords: maize hybrids, yield, the weight of 1000 grains, protein content, starch content.
 

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