Influence of foliar feeding on the grain productivity of corn hybrids in the conditions of the right-bank forest-steppe of Ukraine

Abstract

O.M. Kolisnyk, O.O. Khodanitska, A.O. Butenko, N.A. Lebedieva, L.A. Yakovets, O.M. Tkachenko, O.L. Ihnatieva, O.V. Kurinnyi

Ukraine is a large agricultural country with grain production of more than 60 million tons. At that, the percentage of tilled agricultural land reaches 80%, and in some regions even exceeds 90%. The environmental imbalance of agricultural production is becoming more evidentwith the increasing destructive tendencies in the land use. The problem of soil fertility loss is of particular relevance under present conditions. On the one hand, this problem is caused by the high percentage of tilled agricultural land in the territory of Ukraine and the intensive use of the eroded lands, but, on the other hand, by insufficientlyhigh farming culture andrapid growth of deficiency in organic substance and basic soil nutrients (Kolisnyk, 2019; Tsyhanskyi et al., 2019). According to the statistical bulletin of Ukraine, the areas where corn was grown in Ukraine in 2015-2017 reached 4.3-4.7 mln ha, and Ukraine occupied the leading positionin the world in 2016 in grain production, producing 28.07 mln t, with an average yield in the country of 66.0 t/ha (Kolisnyk, 2019; Kolisnyk, 2016). Therefore, modern agrotechnologies in agriculture are the important factors in improving crop productivity and preserving soil fertility. Modern technologies being used in the competitive agricultural crop production are the means of functioning of sustainable systems in agriculture. It is possible to improve the efficiency and stability of agriculture only due to the introduction of intensive crop growing technologies. The latest technologies contribute to a more efficient use of the potential of modern varieties and hybrids, and increase yields and their quality by influencing the productive process of plant development. These technologies favour the optimization of production costs with regard to the ecological safety of the environment and maintain the relative agroecosystem balance (Palamarchuk et al., 2010; Kolisnyk, 2007; Butenko et al., 2019). Long-termexperiments indicate that the potential of the new corn hybrids hasn’t beenused quite enough (Kolisnyk, 2016; Khodanitska, 2020). The realization of its genetic potential will significantly increase the seed production and stimulate the development of the processing industry. Taking into account the biological characteristics of new corn hybrids and the development of new technologies for their growing, there arises the need to optimize the interaction of the hybrid with the available hydrothermal environmental resources and the arranged factors, which will ensure a more complete realization of their potential in the specific region. 
 
Keywords: Grain; Corn; Hybrid; Foliar feeding; Maturity group; Growth and development stage; Crop yield 

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