Influence of heavy metals on metabolic processes in cows

Abstract

L. G. Slivinska, V. V. Vlizlo, A. R. Shcherbatyy, B. O. Lukashchuk, B. V. Gutyj, M. P. Drach, M. G. Lychuk, I. A. Maksymovych, M. I. Leno, V. I. Rusyn, B. O. Chernushkin, V. L. Fedorovych, H. O. Zinko, O. I. Prystupa, V. Y. Yaremchuk

The actual problem of modern veterinary science of Ukraine in technogenic pollution regions is the study of features and mechanisms of combined action of the most common heavy metals – cadmium and lead and their influence on the body of humans and animals. The purpose of the work was to study the influence of these heavy metals on metabolic processes in cows, in particular on the activity of transferases (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase), total protein content, albumins, alpha-, beta- and gamma-globulins, urea, creatinine, depending on the distance to the heaps of mines in Lviv-Volyn coal basin. The researches were conducted in Lviv-Volyn coal basin (APC “Ukraine”, Grybovytsya village, Bilychi village, Zabolotci village, Zastavne village of Ivanychi district of Volyn region). The study objects were cows of black-spotted breed at the age of 37 years with a productivity of 50005500 kg of milk. It was established that the content of serum total protein in cows that were in the technogenic pollution region (Grybovytsya village, Bilychi village, Zabolotci village, Zastavne village), on average was 69.6 ± 2.56; 75.5 ± 1.89; 74.5 ± 2.37 and 76.9 ± 1.31 g/L respectively, and was lower compared to parameters of cows from APC “Ukraine” (80.4 ± 0.81 g/L). Hypoproteinemia was established in 60% of cows from Grybovytsya village, 20 – from Bilychi village, 30 – from Zabolotci village, and 20% – from Zastavne village. Analysis of individual results in 12 cows (30%) found decreased albumins by 38%. It was established a decrease in the absolute amount of serum beta globulins in cows from Grybovytsya village (P < 0.05) and a tendency to decrease in cows from Bilychi, Zabolotci, and Zastavne villages (P < 0.1). It was established a decrease of serum gamma globulins in cows from Grybovytsya village (P < 0.01), Bilychi, and Zabolotci villages (P < 0.05). In 30% of cows, the percentage of albumins in the total amount of protein was in the range of 36.138% in other cows from 38.1 to 44.8%. In the serum of cows from the control zone, aspartate aminotransferase activity was 1.77 ± 0.082 mmol/(L x h) (1.202.45). In cows, under conditions of body intoxication by heavy metals (cadmium, lead), the activity of serum aspartate aminotransferase was by 1.5 times higher (P < 0.001) in cows from Grybovytsya village, by 1.3 (P < 0.001) from Bilychi village, by 1.2 (P < 0.001) from Zabolotci village and by 1.2 times (P < 0.01) – from Zastavne village compared to the control group of animals. Hyperenzymemia [more than 2.14 mmol/(L x h)] was established in 31 cows of 40 (77.5%), but only in 5 cows (12.5%), aspartate aminotransferase activity was higher than 3 mmol/(L x h). It was established that in the blood serum of cows from Grybovytsya village, the activity of alanine aminotransferase was by 1.7 times (P < 0.001) higher compared to the control group, in cows from Bilychi village – by 1.6 (P < 0.001), from Zabolotci village – by 1.4 times (P < 0.001). The activity of this enzyme in cows from Zastavne village did not differ from the cows of the control zone. Alanine aminotransferase hyperenzymemia was established in 26 cows (65%). The serum of cows from Grybovytsya and Bilychi villages has established an increase of urea content compared to the parameter in APC “Ukraine” (P < 0.001−0.05) and creatinine content by 1.6 and 1.3 times, respectively.

Keywords: cadmium, lead, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total protein, albumin, globulins, creatinine, urea
 

References

 

Al-Attar, A. M. (2011). Antioxidant effect of vitamin E treatment on some heavy metalsinduced renal and testicular injuries in male mice. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 18, 63–72. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2010.10.004

Al-Azemi, M., Omu, F. E., Kehinde, E. O., Anim, J. T., Oriowo, M. A., & Omu, A. E. (2010). Lithium protects against toxic effects of cadmium in the rat testes. Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, 27, 469–476. doi: 10.1007/s10815-010-9426-3

Alonso, M. L., Montaña, F. P., Miranda, M., Castillo, C, Hernández, J, & Luis Benedito, J. (2004). Interactions between toxic (As, Cd, Hg and Pb) and nutritional essential (Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Zn) elements in the tissues of cattle from NW Spain. Biometals, 17(4), 389–397. doi: 10.1023/B:BIOM.0000029434.89679.a2

Antonio, M. T., Benito, M. J., Leret, M. L., & Corpas, I. (1998). Gestation administration of cadmium alters the neurotransmitter levels in newborn rat brains. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 18, 8388. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1099-1263(199803/04)18:2<83::aid-jat480>3.0.co;2-1.

Bashchenko, M. I., Boiko, ?. V., Honchar, ?. F., Gutyj, B. V., Lesyk, Y. V., Ostapyuk, A. Y., Kovalchuk, ?. ?., & Leskiv, Kh. Ya. (2020). The effect of milk thistle, metiphen, and silimevit on the protein-synthesizing function of the liver of laying hens in experimental chronic cadmium toxicosis. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 10(6), 164–168. doi: 10.15421/2020_276

Borshch, O. O., Borshch, O. V., Sobolev, O. I., Nadtochii, V. M., Slusar, M. V., Gutyj, B. V., Polishchuk, S. A., Malina, V. V., Korol, A. P., Korol-Bezpala, L. P., Bezpalyi, I. F., & Cherniavskyi, O. O. (2021). Wind speed in easily assembled premises with different design constructions for side curtains in winter. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 11(1), 325–328. doi: 10.15421/2021_49

Butsiak, H. A., Butsiak, V. I., Gutyj, B. V., Kalyn, B. M., Muzyka, L. I., Stadnytska, O. I., Luchyn, I. S., Rozputnii, O. I., Kachan, L. M., Melnichenko, Yu. O., Sliusarenko, S. V., Bilkevich, V. V., & Leskiv, K. Y. (2021). Migration of mobile forms of heavy metals into the vegetative mass of plants under local human-caused load. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 11(1), 239–343. doi: 10.15421/2021_50

Casalino, E., Calzaretti, G., Sblano, C., & Landriscina, C. (2002). Molecular inhibitory mechanisms of antioxidant enzymes in raf liver and kidney by cadmium. Toxicology, 179(1-2), 37–50. doi: 10.1016/s0300-483x(02)00245-7.

Davis, S. R., & Cousins, R. J. (2002). Metallothionein expression in animals: A physiological perspective on function. The Journal of Nutrition, 130, 1085–1088. doi: 10.1093/jn/130.5.1085

Dong, W., Simeonova, P. P., Gallucci, R., Matheson, J., Flood, L., Wang, S., Hubbs, A., & Luster, M. I. (1998). Toxic metals stimulate inflammatory cytokines in hepatocytes through oxidative stress mechanism. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 151(2), 359–366. doi: 10.1006/taap.1998.8481.

El-Refaiy, A. I., & Eissa, F. I. (2012). Protective effects of ascorbic acid and zinc against cadmium-induced histopathological, histochemical and cytogenetic changes in rats. Comunicata Scientiae, 3(3), 162–180. doi: 10.14295/cs.v3i3.186

El-Shahat, A. E., Gabr, A., Meki, A. R., & Mehana, E. S. (2009). Altered testicular morphology and  oxidative stress induced by cadmium in experimental rats and protective effect of simultaneous green tea extract. International Journal of Morphology, 27(3), 757–764. doi: 10.4067/S0717-95022009000300020.

El-Shahat, A. E., Gabr, A., Meki, A. R., & Mehana, E. S. (2009). Altered testicular morphology and oxidative stress induced by cadmium in experimental rats and protective effect of simultaneous green tea extract. International Journal of Morphology, 27(3), 757764. doi: 10.4067/S0717-95022009000300020

Gupta, R. S., Gupta, E. S., Dhakal, B. K., Thakur, A. R., & Ahnn, J. (2004). Vitamin C and vitamin E protect the rat testes from cadmium – induced reactive oxygen species. Molecules and Cells, 17(1), 132139.

Gutyj, B. V., Ostapyuk, A. Y., Sobolev, O. I., Vishchur, V. J., Gubash, O. P., Kurtyak, B. M., Kovalskyi, Y. V., Darmohray, L. M., Hunchak, A. V., Tsisaryk, O. Y., Shcherbatyy, A. R., Farionik, T. V., Savchuk, L. B., Palyadichuk, O. R., & Hrymak, K. (2019). Cadmium burden impact on morphological and biochemical blood indicators of poultry. Ukrainian journal of Ecology, 9(1), 235–239.

Gutyj, B., Leskiv, K., Shcherbatyy, A., Pritsak, V., Fedorovych, V., Fedorovych, O., Rusyn, V., & Kolomiiets, I. (2017). The influence of Metisevit on biochemical and morphological indicators of blood of piglets under nitrate loading. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(3), 427–432. doi: 10.15421/021766.

Gutyj, B., Nazaruk, N., Levkivska, N., Shcherbatyj, A., Sobolev, A., Vavrysevych, J., Hachak, Y., Bilyk, O., Vishchur, V., Guta, Z. (2017). The influence of nitrate and cadmium load on protein and nitric metabolism in young cattle. Ukrainian journal of Ecology, 7(2), 9–13. doi: 10.15421/201714.

Gutyj, B., Stybel, V., Darmohray, L., Lavryshyn, Y., Turko, I., Hachak, Y., Shcherbatyy, A., Bushueva, I., Parchenko, V., Kaplaushenko, A., & Krushelnytska, O. (2017). Prooxidant-antioxidant balance in the organism of bulls (young cattle) after using cadmium load. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 7(4), 589–596. doi: 10.15421/2017_165

Hibo, P. F., & Bycko, M. T. (1996). Tjazhelye metally i jekologija [Heavy metals and ecology]. Junikol, Minsk (in Belarus).

Honcharova, O. V., Paraniak, R. P., Kutishchev, P. S., Paraniak, N. M., Hradovych, N. I., Matsuska, O. V., Rudenko, O. P., Lytvyn, N. A., Gutyj, B. V., & Maksishko, L. M. (2021). The influence of environmental factors on fish productivity in small reservoirs and transformed waters. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 11(1), 176–180. doi: 10.15421/2021_27

Hwang, D. F., & Wang, L. C. (2001). Effect of taurine on toxicity of cadmium in rats. Toxicology, 167(3), 173180. doi: 10.1016/s0300-483x(01)00472-3

Jomova, K., Vondrakova, D., Lawson, M., & Valko, M. (2010). Metals, oxidative stress and neurodegenerative disorders. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 345(1-2), 91–104, doi: 10.1007/s11010-010-0563-x

Kalaitan, T. V., Stybel, V. V., Gutyj, B. V., Hrymak, O. Ya., Kushnir, L. P., Yaroshevych, N. B., Vovk, M. V., & Kindrat, O. V. (2021). Ecotourism and sustainable development. Prospects for Ukraine. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 11 (1), 373–383. doi: 10.15421/2021_55

Kalyn, B. M., Khromova, M. V., Vishchur, V. Ia., Butsiak, H. A., Kropyvka, S. I., & Gutyj, B. V. (2020). Estimation of quality of surface water of Dniester river basin within Lviv and Khmelnytsk regions. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 10(6), 127–132. doi: 10.15421/2020_271

Lavryshyn, Y. Y., & Gutyj, B. V. (2020). Immune status of bull calves’ organism in case of experimental chronic cadmium toxicosis. Bulletin of Poltava State Agrarian Academy, 2, 244–251. doi: 10.31210/visnyk2020.02.31

Levchenko, V. I., Golovaha, V. I., & Kondrahin, I. P. (2010). Metody laboratornoji klinichnoji diagnostyky hvorob tvaryn [Methods of laboratory clinical diagnosis of animal diseases]. Agrarna Osvita, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).

Lukashchuk, B. O., Slivinska, L. G., Shcherbatyy, A. R., Zinko, H. O., & Gutyj, B. V. (2020). Influence of modern treatment regimens on serum biochemical parameters in piglets with gastroenteritis. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 11(1), 67-73. doi: 10.15421/022009.

Panas, N. E., Antonjak, G. L., Sn?tins'kij, V. V., & Kondrac'kij, S. (2005). Akumuljac?ja kadm?ju v organah b?lih shhur?v za umov vvedennja CdCl2 [Accumulation of cadmium in the organs of large shur under the condition of the introduction of CdCl2]. B?olog?ja tvaryn, 7(1–2), 229–233 (in Ukrainian).

Paranjak, R. P., Vasil'ceva, L. P., & Makuh, H. ?. (2007). Shljahi nadhodzhennja vazhkih metal?v v dovk?llja ta ?h vpliv na zhiv? organ?zmi [Ways of entry of important metals in length and their impact on living organisms]. B?olog?ja tvaryn, 9(1–2), 83–89 (in Ukrainian).

Pavan, K. G., & Prasad, M. N. V. (2004). Cadmium-Inducible Proteins in Ceratophyllum demersum L. (a Fresh Water Macrophyte):Toxicity Bioassays and Relevance to Cadmium Detoxification. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 73(1), 174–181. doi: 10.1007/s00128-004-0410-4

Peng, L., Wang, X., Huo, X., Xu, X., Lin, K., Zhang, J., Huang, Y., & Wu, K. (2015). Blood cadmium burden and the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case–control study in Chinese Chaoshan population. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(16), 12323–12331. doi: 10.1007/s11356-015-4533-4

Rodríguez, E. M., Bigi, R., Medesani, D. A., Stella, V. S., Greco, L. S. L., Moreno, P. A. R., Monser-rat, J. M., Pellerano, G. N., & Ansaldo, M. (2001). Acute and chronic effects of cadmium on blood homeo-stasis of an estuarine crab, Chasmagnathus granulata, and the modifying effect of salinity. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 34(4), 509–518. doi: 10.1590/S0100-879X2001000400011

Sabolic, I., Ljubojevic, M., Herak-Kramberger, C. M., & Brown, D. (2002). Cd-MT causes endocytosis of brush-border transporters in rat renal proximal tubules. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology, 283(6), 1389–402. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.00066.2002

Sahnjuk, V. V. (2009). Pol?morb?dn?st' vnutr?shn'o? patolog?? u visokoproduktivnih kor?v: avtoref. dis. na zdobuttja nauk. stupennja d-ra vet. nauk: spec. 16.00.01 “D?agnostika ? terap?ja tvarin”. B?la Cerkva (in Ukrainian).

Salvatori, F., Talassi, C. B., Salzgeber, S. A., Sipinosa, H.S., & Bernardi, M. M. (2004). Embryotoxic and long-term effects of cadmium exposure during embryogenesis in rats. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 26(5), 673–680. doi: 10.1016/j.ntt.2004.05.001

Saranchuk, I .I., Vishchur, V. Ya., Gutyj, B. V., & Klim, O. Ya. (2021). Effect of various amounts of sunflower oil in feed additives on breast tissues' functional condition, reproductivity, and productivity of honey bees. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 11 (1), 344–349. doi: 10.15421/2021_51

Shaikh, Z. A., Vu, T. T., & Zaman, K. (1999). Oxidative stress as a mechanism of chronic cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity and renal toxicity and protection by antioxidants. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 154(3), 256–263. doi: 10.1006/taap.1998.8586.

Shcherbatyy, A. R., Slivinska, L. G., Gutyj, B. V., Fedorovych, V. L., & Lukashchuk, B. O. (2019). Influence of Marmix premix on the state of lipid peroxidation and indices of non-specific resistance of the organism of pregnant mares with microelementosis. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 10(1), 87–91. doi: 10.15421/021914.

Shcherbatyy, A. R., Slivinska, L. G., Gutyj, B. V., Golovakha, V. I., Piddubnyak, O. V., & Fedorovuch, V. L. (2017). The influence of a mineral-vitamin premix on the metabolism of pregnant horses with microelemetosis. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(2), 293–298. doi: 10.15421/021746.

Slivinska, L. G., Shcherbatyy, A. R., Lukashchuk, B. O., & Gutyj, B. V. (2020). The state of antioxidant protection system in cows under the influence of heavy metals. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 11(2), 237–242. doi: 10.15421/022035.

Slivinska, L. G., Shcherbatyy, A. R., Lukashchuk, B. O., Zinko, H. O., Gutyj, B. V., Lychuk, M. G., Chernushkin, B. O., Leno, M. I., Prystupa, O. I., Leskiv, K. Y., Slepokura, O. I., Sobolev, O. I., Shkromada, O. I., Kysterna, O. S., & ?usiienko, O. V. (2019). Correction of indicators of erythrocytopoesis and microelement blood levels in cows under conditions of technogenic pollution. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 9(2), 127–135.

Slivinska, L. H. (2007). Vplyv antropohennoho navantazhennia na vmist vazhkykh metaliv u systemi “grunt – roslyna” [Influence of anthropogenic load on the content of heavy metals in the soil-plant system]. Visnyk Poltavskoi Derzhavnoji Ahrarnoji Akademiji, 3, 89–91 (in Ukrainian).

Slivinska, L., Fedorovych, V., Gutyj, B., Lychuk, M., Shcherbatyy, A., Gudyma, T., Chernushkin, B., & Fedorovych, N. (2018). The occurrence of osteodystrophy in cows with chronic micronutrients deficiency. Ukrainian journal of Ecology, 8(2), 24–32. doi: 10.15421/2018_305

Slivinska, L., Fedorovych, V., Gutyj, B., Lychuk, M., Shcherbatyy, A., Gudyma, T., Chernushkin, B., & Fedorovych, N. (2018). The occurrence of osteodystrophy in cows with chronic micronutrients deficiency. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 8(2), 24–32 doi: 10.15421/2018_305

Slivinska, L., Shcherbatyy, A., Gutyj, B., Lychuk, M., Fedorovych, V., Maksymovych, I., Rusyn, V., & Chernushkin, B. (2018). Parameters of erythrocytopoiesis, acid resistance and population composition of erythrocytes of cows with chronic hematuria. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 8(1), 379–385. doi: 10.15421/2017_225

Valko, M., Jomova, K., Rhodes, C. J., Ku?a, K., Musílek, K. (2016). Redox- and non-redox-metal-induced formation of free radicals and their role in human disease. Archives of Toxicology, 90(1), 1–37. doi: 10.1007/s00204-015-1579-5

Vasylyev, D., Priimenko, B., Aleksandrova, K., Mykhalchenko, Y., Gutyj, B., Mazur, I., Magrelo, N., Sus, H., Dashkovskyy, O., Vus, U., & Kamratska, O. (2021). Investigation of the acute toxicity of new xanthine xenobiotics with noticeable antioxidant activity. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 11(1), 315–318. doi: 10.15421/2021_47

Velychko, V. O. (2007). Fiziolohichnyi stan orhanizmu tvaryn, biolohichna tsinnist moloka i yalovychyny ta yikh korektsiia za riznykh ekolohichnykh umov seredovyshcha [Physiological state of animals, biological value of milk and beef and their correction under different environmental conditions]. Kvart, Lviv (in Ukrainian).

Waisberg, M., Joseph, P., Hale, B., & Beyersmann, D. (2003). Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis: a review. Toxicology, 192(2-3), 95–117. doi: 10.1016/s0300-483x(03)00305-6.

Watjen, W., & Beyersman, D. (2004). Cadmium-induced apoptosis in C6 glioma cells: influence of oxidative stress. Biometal, 17, 6578. doi: 10.1023/a:1024405119018

Wood, D. R. (2004). Veterinary Laboratory Medicine, Interpretation and Diagnosis, 3rd edition. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 33(3), 182–182 doi: 10.1111/j.1939-165X.2004.tb00372.x

Zasiekin, D. A. (1999). Do pytannia nadkhodzhennia vazhkykh metaliv v orhanizm tvaryn [The issue of heavy metals entering the body of animals]. Visnyk Ahrarnoi Nauky, 12, 59–61. (in Ukrainian).

Share this article