Influence of heavy metals on metabolic processes in cows

Abstract

L. G. Slivinska, V. V. Vlizlo, A. R. Shcherbatyy, B. O. Lukashchuk, B. V. Gutyj*, M. P. Drach, M. G. Lychuk, I. A. Maksymovych, M. I. Leno, V. I. Rusyn, B. O. Chernushkin, V. L. Fedorovych, H. O. Zinko, O. I. Prystupa and V. Y. Yaremchuk

The actual problem of modern veterinary science of Ukraine in technogenic pollution regions is the study of features and mechanisms of combined action of the most common heavy metals – cadmium and lead and their influence on the body of humans and animals. The purpose of the work was to study the influence of these heavy metals on metabolic processes in cows, in particular on the activity of transferases (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase), total protein content, albumins, alpha-, beta- and gamma-globulins, urea, creatinine, depending on the distance to the heaps of mines in Lviv-Volyn coal basin. The researches were conducted in Lviv-Volyn coal basin (APC “Ukraine”, Grybovytsya village, Bilychi village, Zabolotci village, Zastavne village of Ivanychi district of Volyn region). The study objects were cows of black-spotted breed at the age of 3–7 years with a productivity of 5000–5500 kg of milk. It was established that the content of serum total protein in cows that were in the technogenic pollution region (Grybovytsya village, Bilychi village, Zabolotci village, Zastavne village), on average was 69.6 ± 2.56; 75.5 ± 1.89; 74.5 ± 2.37 and 76.9 ± 1.31 g/L respectively, and was lower compared to parameters of cows from APC “Ukraine” (80.4 ± 0.81 g/L). Hypoproteinemia was established in 60% of cows from Grybovytsya village, 20 – from Bilychi village, 30 – from Zabolotci village, and 20% – from Zastavne village. Analysis of individual results in 12 cows (30%) found decreased albumins by 38%. It was established a decrease in the absolute amount of serum beta globulins in cows from Grybovytsya village (P < 0.05) and a tendency to decrease in cows from Bilychi, Zabolotci, and Zastavne villages (P < 0.1). It was established a decrease of serum gamma globulins in cows from Grybovytsya village (P < 0.01), Bilychi, and Zabolotci villages (P < 0.05). In 30% of cows, the percentage of albumins in the total amount of protein was in the range of 36.1–38% in other cows – from 38.1 to 44.8%. In the serum of cows from the control zone, aspartate aminotransferase activity was 1.77 ± 0.082 mmol/(L x h) (1.20–2.45). In cows, under conditions of body intoxication by heavy metals (cadmium, lead), the activity of serum aspartate aminotransferase was by 1.5 times higher (P < 0.001) in cows from Grybovytsya village, by 1.3 (P < 0.001) – from Bilychi village, by 1.2 (P < 0.001) – from Zabolotci village and by 1.2 times (P < 0.01) – from Zastavne village compared to the control group of animals. Hyperenzymemia [more than 2.14 mmol/(L x h)] was established in 31 cows of 40 (77.5%), but only in 5 cows (12.5%), aspartate aminotransferase activity was higher than 3 mmol/(L x h). It was established that in the blood serum of cows from Grybovytsya village, the activity of alanine aminotransferase was by 1.7 times (P < 0.001) higher compared to the control group, in cows from Bilychi village – by 1.6 (P < 0.001), from Zabolotci village – by 1.4 times (P < 0.001). The activity of this enzyme in cows from Zastavne village did not differ from the cows of the control zone. Alanine aminotransferase hyperenzymemia was established in 26 cows (65%). The serum of cows from Grybovytsya and Bilychi villages has established an increase of urea content compared to the parameter in APC “Ukraine” (P < 0.001−0.05) and creatinine content by 1.6 and 1.3 times, respectively.

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