Influence of Iron, Zinc and Boron on the physiological state and productivity of Allium sativum L.
The importance of studying in agriculture the impact of individual micronutrients on the course of production processes and their impact on the quality of garlic is an important issue. The influence of iron, zinc and boron in different norms against the background of the recommended norm NPK. The research results showed significant increasing of chlorophyll content by the application of Iron 10 and 20 kg/ha – 12.0 and 16.4%; by the application zinc increasing of chlorophyll was significant on all variants – 15.1; 48.0 and 30.4% in respectively with the norms. By the application of boron content of chlorophyll was the least significant – 10.9% at the maximum norm – 6 kg/ha. The dynamic activity of antioxidant enzymes was similar before the dynamics of growth processes. The activity of the enzyme was highest for the optimal norms of micronutrients. Among the studied complex of the enzymes most significantly increases actityes catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Zinc has the greatest effect on the formation of bulb mass. The increase in bulb weight by the application of zinc fertilizer was significant in all variants – + 14.3–20.0% to control. Fertilization with microelements in the minimum and optimal norms contributed to a significant increase in yield, the application of maximum norms led to a decrease in productivity in general, except boron, where plant productivity increased with increasing norms, from which it can be concluded that garlic needs were insufficient 6 kg/ha is not the maximum. With fertilization of iron in the norms of 10 and 20 kg/ha the yield increase was 4.26 and 4.85 t/ha and was significant, by the application of 30 kg/ha of iron the yield of garlic was higher than the control by 3.70 t/ha. Zinc fertilization had the best effect on yield increase (+ 4.25–5.12 t/ha). A significant increase in yield for boron fertilization was observed at the maximum rate (+3.26 t/ha). By the application of zinc and boron contributed to the extension of the marketability of garlic bulbs to 210 and 220 days for warm storage and up to 240 and 260 days for cold. During warm storage, after 210 and 260 days – during cold storage there was a mass germination of the cloves. Bulbs of the control variant and y the application of iron germinated after 120 and 180 and 190–210 days according to the variant and storage regime. Further research is to study the combinations of the studied micronutrients on physiological processes and biochemical parameters and to optimize their norms for local fertilization.