Snails are an important component of ecosystem. They process considerable part of dying off organics and redistribute some substances in ecosystems. The protection of snails is the constituent of protection of the most valuable ecosystems which does the latter more complex and effective and lies in protection of their habitat, limitation of certain activities of people and in creation and maintenance of necessary conditions. Worsening of conditions of existence of snails can be foremost due to contamination of soil by radionuclides. As a rule, gastropods molluscs undergo mixed radioactive irradiation – external and internal.
Radioactive contamination of snails can change depending on type of maintenance (natural or artificial - in the conditions of a farm), degree of pollution of soil and plants which molluscs feed on. In the organism of gastropods molluscs radioactive substances get through alimentary canal with feed and water which include radionuclides. Certain amount of radionuclides can also get to the organism with particles of soil and wood. Probability of the consumption of radioactive particles from the surface of soil is high in case of radioactive rainfall.
It was determined that the best method to achieve ecologically clean product is to breed snails in the conditions of a farm. In this case every stage is controlled: getting litter, maintenance of all requirements concerning breeding, feeding and processing of snails on environmentally clean territories. It was well-proven that it is necessary to balance ration of snails with calcium and potassium in the conditions of a farm (in summer on the field) which is near polluted area that will lead to rapid elimination of 137Cs and 90Sr from their organisms. In case of radioactive pollution of gastropods molluscs the main task is not in taking care of them, but in the determination of the possibility to use meat from such snails for nourishment. It is obligatory before preparing ready-to-cook food, consuming or export the meat of snails to investigate them on the content of 137Cs and 90Sr, lead, zinc, copper, cobalt, iron, manganese and calcium. It is especially related to snails of natural population.