Influence of seasonal factors on carp fish immune reactivity


O.P. Rudenko, R.P. Paranjak, N.A. Kovalchuk, L.P. Kit, N.I. Hradovych, B.V. Gutyj, B.M. Kalyn, O.P. Sukhorska, A.A. Butsiak, S.I. Kropyvka, V.V. Petruniv, L.M. Kovalska

The article presents data about influence of seasonal factors on immune reactivity in carp scaly, carp framey, and carp. We studied the blood that was taken from the heart of fish in different seasons: spring (May), summer (August) and autumn (October). The research was carried out at the Lviv department of the Institute of Fisheries of the National Academy of Agrarian Science, Velykyj Ljubin in three groups of two-year-old fish. The received data give reason to think that the number of T- and B-lymphocytes in the blood of carp fish and their functional activity to a large extent depends on the influence of seasonal factors (temperature of the medium, oxygen concentration, duration of light day). This is points to the probable increase in the number of T-lymphocytes (common, active, theophylline-sensitive and theophylline-resistant) and a decrease in B-lymphocytes in the blood of investigated fish in the summer and, especially in the autumn period of research. In this case, an increase in the functional activity of T-lymphocytes was revealed due to the redistribution of the receptor apparatus of the immunocompetent cells. In particular, a reduction in the number of blood of inactive T-lymphocytes in functionally and an increase in cells with low and medium receptor density. Regarding the degree of differentiation of B-lymphocytes, the decrease in their amount in the blood of the studied individuals occurred due to the increase of “zero” and low-conductivity EAS-RUL and reduction of the subpopulation with average receptor density. We suggested that the abiotic factors can modulate the immune response of carp fish.
Keywords: immune reactivity; fish; carp; abiotic factors
Ahmad, T., Singh, S.P., Khangembam, B.K., Sharma, J.G., & Chakrabarti, R. (2014). Food consumption and digestive enzyme activity of Clarias batrachus exposed to various temperatures. Aquaculture Nutrition, 20(3), 265–272. doi:
Akinrotimi, O.A., Bekibele, D.O., & Orokotan, O.O. (2011). Selected haematological values of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) raised in water recirculating system. International J Recirculating Aquaculture, 12, 1–12. doi: Apatenko, V.M. (1994). Veterynarna imunolohiia ta imunopatolohiia. Kyiv.: Urozhai (in Ukrainian). Aspen-Baxter, L. (2007). Biomes: Fresh Waters. Weigl Pub Inc Boet, P., Belliard, al. (1999). Multiple human impacts by the City of Paris on fish communities in the Seine river basin, France. Hydrobiologia, 410, 59–68. doi:
Сameron, J.N. (2010). The influence of environmental variables on the haematology of Pinfish, Lagodon rhomboids and mullet Mugil cephalus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 132, 175–192.
Cushing, C.E. & Allan, J.D. (2001). Streams: Their Ecology and Life. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 21(1), 188. doi:
Fagbenro, O.A., Adeparusi, E.O., & Jimoh, W.A. (2013). Haematological profile of blood of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell, 1822) fed sunflower and sesame meal based diets. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 8, 80–86. doi: Fediaiev, V.Ye. (2003). Stavkove rybnytstvo krainy: Mynule, sohodennia, maibutnie. Rybne hospodarstvo, 1, 38–39 (in Ukrainian).
Grynevych, N., Sliusarenko, A., Dyman, T., Sliusarenko, S., Gutyj, B., Kukhtyn, M., Hunchak, V. Kushnir, V. (2018). Etiology and histopathological alterations in some body organs of juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) at nitrite poisoning. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 8(1), 402–408. doi:
Gutyj, B., Grymak, Y., Drach, M., Bilyk, O., Matsjuk, O., Magrelo, N., Zmiya, M., & Katsaraba, O. (2017). The impact of endogenous intoxication on biochemical indicators of blood of pregnant cows. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(3), 438–443. doi:
Gutyj, B., Khariv, I., Binkevych, V., Binkevych, O., Levkivska, N., Levkivskyj, D., & Vavrysevich, Y. (2017). Research on acute and chronic toxity of the experimental drug Аmprolinsyl. Regul. Mech. Biosyst., 8(1), 41–45.
Gutyj, B., Leskiv, K., Shcherbatyy, A., Pritsak, V., Fedorovych, V., Fedorovych, O., Rusyn, V., & Kolomiiets, I. (2017). The influence of Metisevit on biochemical and morphological indicators of blood of piglets under nitrate loading. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(3), 427–432. doi: 10.15421/021766
Gutyj, B., Martyshchuk, T., Bushueva, I., Semeniv, B., Parchenko, V., Kaplaushenko, A., Magrelo, N., Hirkovyy, A., Musiy, L., & Murska, S. (2017). Morphological and biochemical indicators of blood of rats poisoned by carbon tetrachloride and subject to action of liposomal preparation. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(2), 304–309. doi:10.15421/021748
Hansen, J.D., & Zapata, A.G. (1998). Lymphocyte development in fish and amphibians. Immunol Rev, 166, 199–220.
Haugarvoll, E., Bjerkas, I., Nowak, B.F., Hordvik, I., & Koppang, E.O. (2008). Identification and characterization of a novel intraepithelial lymphoid tissue in the gills of Atlantic salmon. J Anat, 213(2), 202–210. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00943.x
Holland, J.W., Pottinger, T.G., & Secombes, C.J. (2002). Recombinant interleukin-1 beta activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. J Endocrinol, 175, 261–267.
Hollick, M.F., & Chen, T.C. (2008). Vitamin D deficiency: a worldwide problem with health consequences. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87(4), 1080S-1086S. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/87.4.1080S.
Hrytsyniak, I.I., Nahorniuk, T.A., & Tarasiuk, S.I. (2008). Henetychna struktura porid i porodnykh hrup koropiv za okremymy henetyko-biokhimichnymy systemamy. Rybohospodarska nauka Ukrainy, 1, 29–35 (in Ukrainian).
Ivanov, A.A. (2003). The physiology of fish. Moscow: Mir (in Russian).
Khariv, M., Gutyj, B., Ohorodnyk, N., Vishchur, O., Khariv, I., Solovodzinska, I., Mudrak, D., Grymak, C., Bodnar, P. (2017). Activity of the T- and B-system of the cell immunity of animals under conditions of oxidation stress and effects of the liposomal drug. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 7(4), 536–541. doi: 10.15421/2017_157.
Kondratiev, I.A., & Kitashova, I.A. (2002). Modern views on the fish's immune system. Operation. Vestn. Mosk. University, Department of. Physiology of Microorganisms, biol. Faculty of Moscow State University. MV Lomonosov. Immunology, 2, 9–21 (in Russian)
Kondratiev, I.A., Kitashova, A., & Lange, M.A. (2001). Modern representation tion of the immune system of fish. Organization of the immune system of fish. Vestn. Mosk. University, Department of. Physiology of Microorganisms, biol. Faculty of Moscow State University. MV Lomonosov. Biology, 4, 11–23 (in Russian)
Koppang, E.O., Fischer, U., Moore, L., Tranulis, M.A., Dijkstra, J.M., Kollner, B. et al. (2010). Salmonid T cells assemble in the thymus, spleen and in novel interbranchial lymphoid tissue. J Anat, 217, 728–739. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01305.x.
Kushnir, I.M., Kushnir, V.I., Gufriy, D.F., Gutyj, B.V., Vishchur, V.Ya., Bushueva, I.V., Kulish, S.M., Shcherbyna, R.O., Samura, T.A., & Stoyanovskyy, V.G. (2019). Subacute toxicity of the preparation “Biovir-P”. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 10(2), 674−680.
Neofitou, N., & Klaoudatos, S. (2008). Effect of fish farming on the water column nutrient concentration in a semi‐enclosed gulf of the Eastern Mediterranean. Aquaculture research, 39(5), 482–490. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2008.01900.x.
Oleksiienko, O.O. & Hrytsyniak, I.I. (2007). Vnutrishnoporidna struktura ukrainskykh koropiv. Rybohospodarska nauka Ukrainy, 1, 21–27. (in Ukrainian).
Saha, N.R., Usami, T., & Suzuki, Y. (2002).Seasonal changes in the immune activities of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 26(4), 379–387. doi:
Shah, A.W. (2009). Impact of fish haematology of Anchar lake, Kashmir. Pakistan. Journal of Nutrition, 8(01), 42–45. doi:
Tavares-Dias, M., & Moraes, F.R. (2007). Leukocyte and thrombocyte reference values for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Raf.), with an assessment of morphological, cytochemical, and ultrastructural features. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 36, 49–54.
Tymochko, M.F., Yeliseieva, O.P., Kobylinska, L.I., & Tymochko, I.F. (1998). Metabolichni aspekty formuvannia kysnevoho homeostazu v ekstremalnykh stanakh. Lviv (in Ukrainian). Valero, Y., García-Alcázar, A., Esteban, M.Á., Cuesta, A., & Chaves-Pozo, E. (2014). Seasonal variations of the humoral immune parameters of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 39, 185–187. doi:
Winemiller, K.O., Agostinho, A.A. & Caramaschi, E.P. (2008). Fish ecology in tropical streams. Tropical streams ecology, 107–146.
Zaki, M.S. (2010). Аssesment of the hazardous effect of lead pollution on Tilipia zilli, including hematological, biochemical and immunological and immunological parameters. Rep. Opin, 2, 82–87.
Zou, J., Bird, S., & Secombes, C.J. (2010). Antiviral sensing in teleost fish. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 16, 4185–4193.
Zou, J., Mercier, C., & Secombes, C. (2007). Discovery of multiple beta-defensin like homologues in teleost fish. Mol Immunol, 44(4), 638–647. doi:

Share this article