Influence of seeding density and fertilizing on water consumption, growth and development of maize hybrids
V.I. Polyakov, L.M. Karpuk, I.D. Prymak, A.A. Pavlichenko, V.M. Karaulna, L.V. Yezerkovksa, R.M. Kulyk, S.S. Shokh
We presented the analysis of water consumption, growth, and development of maize hybrids depending on crops and fertilizer density. We conducted our research under Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University (Ukraine) educational and production center conditions in 2017-2019. During the active growing season of corn plants (June), moisture reserves in the 0-20 cm layer of the soil decrease to the level of unsatisfactory, and the plants experience a lack of moisture. Although, as results of defining moisture stocks in 0-100 cm layer of soil show, plants begin to assimilate it in the third ten-day period of May actively, and there is a sharp transition to good moisture stocks in the first ten-day period of June and to poor ones in the second and third ten-day periods of June. Cultivation of maize hybrids with FAO over 400 in unstable moisture conditions is quite risky because plants experience a significant lack of moisture in periods of their active growth and development. We have proved that at the density of crops within 55000/ha, the highest coefficients of water consumption were observed compared to plant densities of 65000 and 75000/ha. At hybrid DO Pivikha, the difference between average values of coefficient of water consumption at densities of crops 65000 and 75000/ha, was 25.5 and 46.75 m3/t, at hybrid DO ORLIK – 14.25 and 41.0 m3/t and at hybrid DO SARMAT respectively 17.5 and 39.0 m3/t. We found that the mineral system of fertilization compared with the organic-mineral and organic promotes water consumption growth per unit production in DN Pivikha by 4-15 m3/t, in DN ORLIK by 1-7 m3/t, and in DN SARMAT by 7-15 m3/t. The obtained patterns, for the most part, do not exceed the value of NIR0.05. In general, the duration of the growing season of the plants of the hybrid DO Pivikha was 109 days, and the hybrid DO ORLIK was 122, and the hybrid DO SARMAT was 129 days. These hybrids were in optimal conditions for growth and development and met the declared values of FAO, since for PO Pivikha, the limits of the optimal duration of the vegetation period were determined as 107-115 days, for the hybrid DO ORLIK - 120-125, and for the hybrid DO SARMAT - 128-130 days.
Keywords: maize, varietal characteristics, plant growth and development, water consumption, similarity, seeding density
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