Influence of weather and climatic conditions on soybean yield


M.Tsekhmeistruk*, O. Pankova*, V. Kolomatska, L. Kobyzieva, M. Artiomov and K. Sirovitskiy

The growth and germination of agricultural plants are determined by the soil and climatic conditions of the territory. In 75-80% of years, the climatic conditions are abnormal. In addition, the water regime of the soil is made worse not only by insufficient rainfall during the growing season, but also due to the reduction of humus reserves in the arable layer. All factors that ensure the plant's germination are closely interrelated. Changing one of them causes changing others. The study aimed to research the influence of weather and climatic conditions (average daily air temperatures and precipitation during the growing season) on the level of soybean yield. Field research was conducted in the period 2004-2020 at the The Plant Production Institute named after V.Ya. Yuriev of NAAS. On average, over the years of research (2004-2020), the deviation in the average daily temperature during the soybean growing season is plus 2.21°C. There is noted significant warming in the period August-September by 2.41-2.21°C. Insufficient moisture was observed during the nine years and excess – during the eight years. Calculations of linear regression show a constant and stable increase in average daily temperature for all months. Regression analysis of the precipitation amount for the study period predicts an increase in this indicator only in April and May, the regression equation - y = 0.9419x + 22.658 and y = 1.7973x + 41.724. June and July - decrease in the amount of precipitation, equations y = -2.9848x + 98.169 and y = -1.799x + 82.215, in August - y = -2.3203x + 58.907. During 2004-2020, with all backgrounds of mineral nutrition, the precipitation of July had a positive effect on the crop (r = from 0.501 to 0.555). May precipitation - only in control variant - r = 0.408 and in the case of the N60P60K60 background + 30 t/ha of manure (r = 0.318). For the last research period of 2014-2020, this indicator has a much higher positive impact on crop yields in all months and all backgrounds of mineral nutrition, compared to previous research periods.

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