Influence on fertilization regime on spring barley yields in the southern steppe of Ukraine

Abstract

A.O. Rozhkov, S.S. Spilnyk, O.V. Gepenko, N.O. Didukh, I.O. Derevyanko, S.V. Stankevych

Because of the high costs of fertilizers and the exacerbation of environmental problems, it is crucial not only to determine doses and timing of fertilization correctly but also to improve the absorption and assimilation of nutrients by plants. This will increase plant growth and development management efficiency and contribute to the fuller realization of the genetic potential of their performance that can be achieved only through a balanced selection of fertilizers. Simultaneously, it should be noted that for spring, barley long-acting fertilizers should be applied as essential fertilization in autumn and fast-acting ones as supplementary foliar fertilization with soluble complexes. Combinations of these two types of fertilization ensure a highly efficient nutrition and cultivation technology in general. Our purpose was to study the complex influence of essential mineral fertilizers and foliar supplementary fertilizers (various mixtures of urea, water-soluble complex fertilizers, and humic compounds) on the grain yields and economic indicators of spring barley production in the southern steppe of Ukraine. The study was conducted in the Educational and Experimental Farm of the separate structural subdivision “Novokakhovskyi Professional College of the Tavriia State Agrotechnological University named after Dmytro Motorny” (the central part of the Kakhovkyi Raion, Khersonska Oblast) in 2018–2020. According to the conventional method, the two-factor experiment was performed in segregated plots arranged in two bands in four replications. We studied five variants of essential mineral fertilization and five variants for supplementary foliar fertilization. The plot area was 120 m2; the recording area was 80 m2. Various temperatures and significant fluctuations in the precipitation amount and its distribution during the spring-summer vegetation of spring barley greatly influenced the growth processes in plants, which significantly affected the grain yield. Simultaneously, this made it possible to more fully determine the impact of the studied nutrition variants on the grain yield of this crop. The highest gain in the spring barley grain yield was achieved due to the primary application of complex fertilizer polyphosphate at a dose of N20P60K60S22.5. However, through the lens of economic efficiency, a mixture of ammophos (N15P60) with potassium chloride (K30) was the best basic fertilization. The difference in the spring barley grain yield between these two variants was only 0.05 t/ha, while the additional costs of applying polyphosphate at a dose of 250 kg/ha were 1820 UAH/ha higher than the costs of ammophos + potassium chloride mixture. The use of ammophos (N15P60) + potassium chloride (K30) significantly reduces the chemical load on the soil compared to traditional fertilizer doses, as it decreases the nitrogen inflow, which, when applied in autumn, can pollute groundwater or evaporate. The number of applied potassium decreases because 30 and 60 kg/ha of potassium on the grain yields are very similar. Of the studied foliar supplementary fertilization, the most significant rise in the yield and the highest economic efficiency were recorded after a single application of urea at a dose of N10 in a mixture with growth stimulant EFISOIL Renovation at a dose of 0.4 L/ha and concentrated fertilizer Foliq Micro at a dose of 1.5 L/ha during microphase 31 and the second fertilization with a mixture of EFISOIL Renovation at a dose of 0.4 L/ha and highly concentrated fertilizer Foliq Micro at a dose of 3.0 L/ha during microphase 39.

Keywords: spring barley, nutrition, grain yield, profit, basic fertilization, foliar supplementary
 

References

 

Ahlemeyer, J. & Friedt, W. (2012). Winterweizenertrage in Deutschland stabil auf hohem Niveau. Welchen Einfluss hat der Zuchtungsfortschritt? Getreide Magazin, Vol. 6, 38–41.

Bakry, B.A. et al. (2013). Effect of humic and ascorbic acids foliar application on yield and yield components of two wheat cultivars grown under newly reclaimed sandy soil. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production. ?4(6), 1125–1133.

Belyaev V.I., Meinel, T., Grunevald, K., Sokolova, L.V., Kuznetsov, V.N., Matsyura, A.V. (2018). Influence of spring soft wheat, peas and rape cultivation technology on soil water regime and crop yield. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 8(1). 873-879. DOI: 10.15421/2018_287

Bezpal'ko, V.V., Stankevych, S.V., Zhukova, L.V., Zabrodina, I.V., Turenko, V.P., Horyainova, V.V., Poedinceva, ?.A., Batova, O.M., Zayarna, O.Yu., Bondarenko, S.V., Dolya, M.M., Mamchur, R.M., Drozd, P.Yu., Sakhnenko, V.V., Matsyura, A.V. (2020). Pre-sowing seed treatment in winter wheat and spring barley cultivation. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 10(6), 255-268.

Bezpal'ko, V.V., Zhukova, L.V., Stankevych, S.V. & Zabrodina I.V. (2020). Ways to increase the yield capacity of winter wheat and spring barley on the basis of applying pre-sowing seed irradiation with extra high frequencies microwave field in the conditions of eastern forest-steppe of Ukraine: monograph. Kharkiv, Publishing House I. Ivanchenko.

Bezpal'ko, V.V., Zhukova, L.V., Stankevych, S.V., Ogurtsov, Yu.H., Klymenko, I.I., Hutians'kyi, R.A., Fesenko, A.M., Turenko, V.P., Zabrodina, I.V., Bondarenko, S.V., Batova, O.M., Golovan, L.V., Klymenko, I.V., Poedinceva, A.A., Melenti, V.O. (2019). Ecologically safe methods for presowing treatment of cereal seeds. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 9(3), 189–197.

Bezpal'ko, V.V., Stankevych, S.V., Zhukova, L.V., Matsyura, A.V., Zabrodina, I.V., Turenko, V.P., Horyainova, V.V., Poedinceva, ?.A., Zayarna, O.Yu., Lazarieva, O.V., Tsekhmeistruk, M.H., Pankova, O.V., Chygryna, S.A., Ogurtsov, Yu.Ye., Klymenko, I.I. (2021). Pre-sowing treatment of winter wheat and spring barley seeds with the extremely high frequencies electromagnetic field. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 11 (1), 6271.

Bharali, A. et al. (2017). Integrated nutrient management in wheat grown in a northeast India soil: Impacts on soil organic carbon fractions in relation to grain yield. Soil & Tillage Research, 168, 81–91.

Chaban, V.I., Kramarov, S.M. & Podobed, O.Yu. (2013). Urozhaj i yakist zerna yachmenyu yarogo pri vikoristanni mikrodobriv u pivnichnomu Stepu Ukrayini. Visnik Dnipropetrovskogo DAU. Seriya Silskogospodarska ekologiya, 2(32), 32–36 (in Ukrainian).

Dospehov, B.A. (1985). Metodika polevogo opyta (s osnovami statisticheskoj obrabotki rezultatov issledovanij). Moscow, Agropromizdat, 351 (in Russian).

Gamayunova, V.V. & Smirnov, I.V. (2015). Formuvannya produktivnosti pshenici ozimoyi zalezhno vid umov viroshuvannya v Pivdennomu Stepu. Zbirnik naukovih prac NNC Institut zemlerobstva NAAN, 4, 46–51 (in Ukrainian).

Girka, A.D. et al. (2017). Formuvannya vrozhajnosti ta yakosti zerna yachmenyu yarogo zalezhno vid regulyatoriv rostu i udobrennya. Zernovi kulturi, 1, 59–65 (in Ukrainian).

Girka, A.D., Bokun, O.I. & Mamyedova, E.I. (2017). Vpliv poperednikiv, mineralnih dobriv i biopreparativ na formuvannya elementiv strukturi vrozhajnosti yachmenyu yarogo v Pivnichnomu Stepu Ukrayini. Zernovi kulturi, 1(1), 51–55 (in Ukrainian).

Gorash, O.S. (2016). Zalezhnist ekstraktivnosti pivovarnogo yachmenyu vid vplivu pozakorenevogo pidzhivlennya roslin mikrodobrivom. Visnik agrarnoyi nauki, 12, 29–32 (in Ukrainian). doi.org/10.31073/agrovisnyk201612-06

Horiainova, V.V., Turenko, V.P., Bilyk, M.O., Stankevych, S.V., Zhukova, L.V., Batova, O.M., Martynenko, V.I., Kucherenko, Ye.Yu., Zviahintseva, A.M. (2020). Species composition, morphological and biological peculiarities of leaf pathogens of spring wheat. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 10(3), 115–120.

Kalenska, S., Holodchenko, R. & Tokar, B. (2015). Vpliv mineralnih dobriv ta retardantnogo zahistu na urozhajnist yachmenyu yarogo pivovarnogo. Agrobiologiya, 1, 56–58 (in Ukrainian).

Kalenska, S.M. & Tokar, B.Yu. (2015). Urozhajnist yachmenyu yarogo zalezhno vid rivnya mineralnogo zhivlennya. Novitni tehnologiyi viroshuvannya silskogospo-darskih kultur. Proceed. IV Int Sc. Conf (Kiyiv, 24.04.2015), 30–33 (in Ukrainian).

Lihochvor, V.V. (2014). Najvazhlivishi mikroelementi dlya ozimini. Agrobiznes sogodni, 9(280), 33–35 (in Ukrainian).

Loginova, I.V. & Bilera, N.M. (2014). Efektivnist riznih form i sposobiv vnesennya mikroelementiv u tehnologiyah viroshuvannya silskogospodarskih kultur. Naukovij visnik Nacionalnogo universitetu bioresursiv i prirodokoristuvannya Ukrayini, 195(1), 71–77 (in Ukrainian).

Mackay, I. et al. (2011). Reanalyzes of the historical series of UK variety trials to quantify the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to trends and variability in yield over time. Theor. Appl. Genet, 122(1), 225–238. doi: 10.1007/s00122-010-1438-y

Manzoor, A., Khattak, R.A. & Dost, M.(2014). Humic acid and micronutrient effects on wheat yield and nutrients uptake in salt affected soil. International journal of agriculture & biology, 16, 991–995.

Marenich, M.M. et al. (2018). Formuvannya produktivnosti sortiv pshenici ozimoyi pid diyeyu guminovih rechovin. Visnik Poltavskoyi derzhavnoyi agrarnoyi akademiyi, 1, 63–66 (in Ukrainian).

Morozov, O.V. et al. (2014). Formuvannya urozhajnosti ozimoyi pshenici zalezhno vid klimatichnih zmin (na prikladi Hersonskoyi oblasti). Tavrijskij naukovij visnik, 88, 146–152 (in Ukrainian).

Panfilova, A.V. & Hamaiunova, V.V. (2018). The productivity of spring barley varieties and plant nutrition optimization in the Southern Steppe of Ukraine. Plant Varieties Studying and Protection, 14(3), 310–315. doi.org/10.21498/2518-1017.14.3.2018.145304

Polovij, V.M. et al. (2020). Produktivnist yachmenyu yarogo zalezhno vid udobrennya ta vapnuvannya v umovah Zahidnogo Polissya. Agroekologichnij zhurnal, 1, 83–90 (in Ukrainian). doi.org/10.33730/2077-4893.1.2020.201276

Sanin, Yu.V. (2012). Osoblivosti pozakorenevogo pidzhivlennya silskogospodarskih kultur mikroelementami. Agrobiznes sogodni, ? 6(229) (in Ukrainian). Available from: http://www.agrobusiness.com.ua/agronomiia-siogodni/964-osoblyvosti-poza-korenevogo-pidzhyvlennia-silskogospodarskykh-kulturmikroelementamy.html

Sardak, M.O., Sardak, M.I. & Gvozd, O.O. (2016). Formuvannya vrozhayu golozernogo ta plivchastogo yachmenyu zalezhno vid norm visivu ta mineralnogo zhivlennya v umovah Pivnichnogo Lisostepu Ukrayini. Mironivskij visnik, 2, 249–261 (in Ukrainian).

Shahryari, R. (2017). Economic and biological yield assessment of wheat genotypes under terminal drought in presence of humic acid using tolerance indices. IIOAB journal, 7, Supplement 3, 1–6.

Titova, E.M. & Vnukova, M.A. (2011). Effektivnost primeneniya kompleksnyh udobrenij na posevah yachmenya yarovogo. Nauchnoe obespechenie razvitiya obshego zemledeliya. Vestnik OrelGAU ?5(32), 116–120 (in Russian).

Turenko, V.P., Bilyk, M.O., Zhukova, L.V., Stankevych, S.V., Zayarna, O.Yu., Lukhanin, I.V., Oleynikov, Ye.S., Batova, O.M., Goryainova, V.V., Poedinceva, A.A. (2019). Dependence of species composition and development of root rots pathogens of spring barley on abiotic factors in the Eastern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 9(2), 179–188.

Yeremyeyev, V.N. & Yefimov, V.V. (2003). Regionalni aspekti globalnoyi zmini klimatu. Visnik NAN Ukrayini, ?2, 14–19 (in Ukrainian).

Zhukova, L.V., Stankevych, S.V., Turenko, V.P., Bezpal'ko, V.V., Zabrodina, I.V., Bondarenko, S.V., Poedinceva, A.A., Golovan, L.V., Klymenko, I.V., Melenti, V.O. (2019). Root rots of spring barley, their harmfulness and the basic effective protection measures. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 9(2), 232–238.

 

Share this article