Inheritance of morphological and fertile characters in heterozygous sorghum hybrids
S.I. Kapustin, A.B. Volodin, A.S. Kapustin
In 2015-2017 years. in the North Caucasian FNAC, 8 sterile mother lines, more than 20 father fertility reducers and 150 derived on their basis cereal sorghum hybrids studied the main economically valuable traits. Identified their quantitative indicators and heritability in hybrids in comparison with the average indicators of parental forms. In the 5 combinations obtained, the true heterosis shows a decrease in the duration of the sprout-budding period by 1-3 days compared to the average data of the parental forms. In a number of hybrids, this symptom increased for 3-6 days, and for some parents and hybrids, they were identical. In comparison with the average values of the parental forms, the true heterosis in some of the hybrids obtained was 15-42 cm, or 11.6-34.7%. Higher values were obtained by pollination with pollen from Ergen and Garant. Among the sterile lines, the maximum values were obtained using Zerst 38A, A-3615 and A-3529. Heterosis leaf length high values (15.4-17.6%) had combinations with the participation of sterile Zerst lines 38A and A-3529. The highest indices of heterosis along the length of the panicles (7.5-12.9 cm) were obtained in hybrids, where the parent forms are Zersta 38A and Brownwood 11C. There is no direct correlation between the level of heterosis in the length of the panicle and the exit of the panicle stem from the socket of the top sheet. The highest level of grain yield was established in the hybrids Brownwood 11C × L-3631/93 (7.24 t/ha), Brown-billed 11C × Ergen (6.48 t/ha), A-1012×Ergen (6.39 t/ha) , A-3529×Ergen (6.37 t/ha), Zersta 38A × Garant (6.23 t/ha), A-3615×Hazin 28 (6.29 t/ha), A-3615×SQ1-OA (6.31 t/ha), which is higher than that of Zerst 97 (4.91 t/ha) by 1.32-2.33 t/ha. The true heterosis in 25 of these hybrids to an average crop of grain of parents shows its excess at 1.89-3.20 t/ha or 43.0-79.2%. High heterosis was obtained in combinations with the participation of maternal sterile lines Brown-billed 11C, A-1012, Zerst 38A, A-3615, A-3529, as well as Ergen, Garant, C-3631/93, Hazine 28 and SQ1-OA pollinators. Combinations were established in which heterosis by mass of 1000 grains reached 11.2-17.1%. A number of hybrids received a decrease in this feature in comparison with parental forms by 1.6-7.1%. Similar patterns were obtained for the weight of 1 panicle. In some of the hybrids obtained, the heterosis of this trait is not established. But in combinations involving sterile lines A-1012, Zerst 38A and A-3615, its values were 38.5-79.6%. Variant Brownish 11С × L-3631/93 except for high grain yield, size, weight of panicle and grain has a low harvesting moisture of grain (11.3%), which is explained by a high daily decrease of this sign both at the beginning of maturation (0.6%) so and at the end of maturation (0.8%). A large grain yield (6.39 t/ha) was obtained in the hybrid A-10-12 x Ergen, with a combination of a considerable length of panicle (31 cm), a mass of 1000 grains (25.6 g), a panicle weight of 1 (61 g) and exit the legs of the panicle from the socket of the upper sheet (19 cm).
Keywords: Grain sorghum; line; variety; hybrid; heterosis; parental forms; crossing; combinational ability
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