Intensity of heavy metal accumulation in plants of Silybum marianum L. in conditions of field rotation


S.F. Razanov, O.P. Tkachuk, A.M. Razanova, M.I. Bakhmat, O.M. Bakhmat

Goal. Estimation of the influence of mineral fertilization of Silybum marianum L. on the intensity of accumulation of heavy metals in its leaf mass and seeds. Methods. field, laboratory atomic absorption method, mathematical and statistical processing. Results. Intensive absorption and accumulation of leaf mass and seeds of  Silybum marianum L. lead, cadmium and zinc in quantities far exceeding the maximum permissible levels were questioned the possibility of its useproducts in the medical needs of the population and requires measures to reduce their accumulation in plants. In particular, the least accumulated is lead, cadmium and zinc in the leaf mass and the seeds of Silybum marianum L. in the absence of any fertilization of its crops. When applying fertilizers, the least amount of lead accumulates by the plants of Silybum marianum L. when using a mixture of ammonium nitrate, simple phosphate and potassium chloride. The greatest accumulation of lead by seeds is observed when fertilizing Silybum marianum L. with ammonium nitrate, and leaf mass – when fertilizing with potassium chloride. The least cadmium accumulates with the leaves of Silybum marianum L. for fertilization with superphosphate simple, and the seeds for fertilization with a mixture of fertilizers. Most absorb the leaf mass and seeds of Silybum marianum L. cadmium for fertilizing plants with ammonium nitrate. When fertilizer is applied, the least zinc accumulates in the seeds of the Silybum marianum L. when using a mixture of ammonium nitrate, simple phosphate and potassium chloride, and in the leaf mass – using potassium chloride. The highest accumulation of zinc by the seeds and leaf mass of the  Silybum marianum L. was observed for the fertilization of its crops with ammonium nitrate.

Keywords: Heavy metals; Accumulation; Medicinal plant; Rotation


Ahmad Munib, Chand Naila, Khan Rifat Ullah (2020). Dietary supplementation of milk thistle (Silybum marianum): growth performance, oxidative stress, and immune response in natural summer stressed broilers.   Tropical animal health and production, 52. 2. 711-715.

Ayati Zahra, Sarris Jerome, Chang Dennis (2020). Herbal medicines and phytochemicals for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Phytotherapy research.

Aziz Muhammad Abdul, Adnan Muhammad, Begum Shaheen (2016). A review on the elemental contents of Pakistani medicinal plants: Implications for folk medicines. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 188. 177-192.

Brunetti G., Soler-Rovira P., Farrag K. (2009). Tolerance and accumulation of heavy metals by wild plant species grown in contaminated soils in Apulia region, Southern Italy. Plant and soil, 318. 1-2. 285-298.

Ceribasi S., Turk G., Ozcelik M. (2020). Negative effect of feeding with high energy diets on testes and metabolic blood parameters of male Japanese quails, and positive role of milk thistle seed. Theriogenology,   144. 74-81.

Del Rio-Celestino Mercedes, Font Rafael, Moreno-Rojas Rafael (2005). Uptake of lead and zinc by wild plants growing on contaminated soils. 17th Annual Meeting of the Association-for-the-Advancement-of-Industrial-Crops. Murcia, Spain. Industrial crops and products, 24. 3. 230-237.

Del Rio M., Font R., Almela C. (2002). Heavy metals and arsenic uptake by wild vegetation in the Guadiamar river area after the toxic spill of the Aznalcollar mine. Journal of biotechnology, 98. 1. 125-137.

Dumludag Burak, Derici Mehmet Kursat, Sutcuoglu Osman (2020). Role of silymarin (Silybum marianum) in the prevention of colistin-induced acute nephrotoxicity in rats. Drug and chemical toxicology.

Dogaru Gabriela, Bulboaca Adriana Elena, Gheban Dan (2020). Effect of Liposomal Curcumin on Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity by Down-regulation of Oxidative Stress and Matrix Metalloproteinases. In vivo, 34. 2. 569-582.

Dominguez Maria T., Montiel-Rozas Maria M., Madejon Paula (2017). The potential of native species as bioenergy crops on trace-element contaminated Mediterranean lands. Science of the total environment, 590. 29-39.   

El-Alam Imad, Verdin Anthony, Fontaine Joel (2018). Ecotoxicity evaluation and human risk assessment of an agricultural polluted soil. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 190. 12. 738.

Ghanadi Kourosh, Rafieian-Kopaei Mahmoud, Karami Nima (2019). An Ethnobotanical Study of Hepatoprotective Herbs from Shahrekord, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Southwest of Iran. Egyptian journal of veterinary science, 50. 2. 129-134.  

Grippo A.A., Hamilton B., Hannigan R. (2006). Metal content of ephedra-containing dietary supplements and select botanicals. American journal of health-system pharmacy, 63. 7. 635-644.

Hammami Hossein, Alaie Ebrahim, Dastgheib Seyed Mohammad Mehdi (2018). The ability of Silybum marianum to phytoremediate cadmium and/or diesel oil from the soil. International journal of phytoremediation, 20. 8. 756-763.

Hunce Selda Yigit, Clemente Rafael, Bernal Maria Pilar (2019). Energy production potential of phytoremediation plant biomass: Helianthus annuus and Silybum marianum. Industrial crops and products, 135. 206-216.

Hussain I., Khan L., Mehmood T. (2005). Effect of heavy metals on the growth and development Silybum marianum, in various polluted areas of Peshawar, Pakistan. Journal of the chemical society of Pakistan, 27. 4. 367-373.

Ibrar Muhammad, Muhammad Naveed, Shah Welayath (2013). Evaluation of trace and toxic heavy metals in selected crude drugs used in khyber pukhtonkhawa, Pakistan. Pakistan journal of botany, 45. 1. 141-144.  

Jowkar Farideh, Godarzi Hamid, Parvizi Mohammad Mahdi (2020). Can we consider silymarin as a treatment option for vitiligo? A double-blind controlled randomized clinical trial of phototherapy plus oral Silybum marianum product versus phototherapy alone. Journal of dermatological treatment, 31. 3. 256-260.

Jordan Miguel, Pena Raul C.. Osses Miguel (2003). Plant colonization of a cellulose mill dump in continuous solid residue refill. Phyton-international journal of experimental botany, 177-182.

Kato Eisuke, Kushibiki Natsuka, Satoh Hiroshi (2020). Silychristin derivatives conjugated with coniferylalcohols from silymarin and their pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. Natural product research, 34. 6. 759-765.  

Martinez-Fernandez D., Arco-Lazaro E., Bernal M.P.  (2014). Comparison of compost and humic fertiliser effects on growth and trace elements accumulation of native plant species in a mine soil phytorestoration experiment . Ecological engineering, 73. 588-597.

Parveen Rabea, Ahmad Sayeed, Baboota Sanjula (2010). Stability-indicating HPTLC method for quantitative estimation of silybin in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form. Biomedical chromatography, 24. 6. 639-647.

Perrino E.V., Brunetti G., Farrag K. (2014). Plant communities in multi-metal contaminated soils: a case study in the national park of alta murgia (apulia region – southern Italy). International journal of phytoremediation, 16. 9. 871-888.

Pourjabar A., Azimi M.R., Mostafaie A. (2019). Proteome analysis of milk thistle (silybum marianum l.) cell suspension cultures in response to methyl jasmonate and yeast extract elicitors. Applied ecology and environmental research, 17. 1. 547-560.


Share this article