Laboratory and field germination of winter wheat and spring barley depending on the mode of irradiation with MWF of EHF and pre-sowing seed treatment

Abstract

V.V. Bezpal'ko, S.V. Stankevych, L.V. Zhukova, O.V. Lazarieva, L.V. Nemerytska, L.M. Popova, R.M. Mamchur, D.T. Gentosh, O.H. Afanasieva, V.V. Horiainova, O.Yu. Zayarna, A.M. Milenin, Yu.Ye. Ogurtsov, I.I. Klymenko

The pre-sowing seed treatment with chemical synthesis pesticides remains the primary method in the agricultural industry today. However, pesticides inevitably have a negative influence on the ecosystem of any level. A more environmentally friendly method of seed treatment under the intensive technology is the combination of microwave seed irradiation and seed incrustation with plant growth regulators that provide an increase in the cereal crops' yield capacity up to 15–20 %. As a result of research, it is established that when the seeds were treated with MWF of EHF the average laboratory indices of the sprouting energy and germinating power were slightly lower than in the case with Vitavax FF, 2.5 L/t. After treating the seeds irradiated with MWF of EHF with the plant growth regulator Mars EL, in 2010–2012, the average sprouting energy and germinating power of winter wheat seeds were higher by 2%, which corresponds to the indices of Vitavax 200 FF case. In the laboratory conditions, the sowing qualities of spring barley seeds varied depending on the method of the pre-sowing treatment and its variety.  It can be concluded that the combination of the pre-sowing seed irradiation with MWF of EHF with the subsequent treatment with the plant growth regulators, in general, has a positive influence on the sowing qualities of winter wheat and spring barley. The combination of the pre-sowing irradiation with MWF of EHF with the subsequent treatment with the growth regulators positively influenced the field germination of winter wheat and spring barley seeds. Winter wheat of the Astet variety was sown at a sowing rate of 4,5 million viable seeds per 1 ha. The determination of field germination was performed in the phase of full sprouting. At the same time, it was found out that in 2010–2012 the average field germination under control and in the case with the Vitavax 200 FF treating agent was practically the same and amounted to 90,0–90,2 %. However, under the unfavorable conditions of 2012, the field germination of winter wheat seeds in the Vitavax 200 FF case exceeded the control by 7,8 %. The pre-sowing seed irradiation with MWF of EHF in the modes of 1,8 kW/kg, 15 sec. and 0,9 kW/kg, 45 sec. increased the field germination of winter wheat by 6.9 and 7.4 %, respectively. In the cases where the seeds were treated with MWF of EHF and Mars EL preparation, it was higher by 9.1–11.8 %. This indicates that under unfavorable conditions, the pre-sowing seed treatment on field germination is more significant.

Key words: disinfection, fungicides, growth regulators, pathogens, seeds, grain, winter wheat, spring barley, microwaves
 

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