Migration of heavy metal mobile forms into the plant vegetative mass under anthropogenic load
H.A. Butsiak, V.I. Butsiak, B.V. Gutyj, B.M.Kalyn, L.I. Muzyka, O.I. Stadnytska, I.S. Luchyn, O.I. Rozputnii, L.M. Kachan, Yu.O. Melnichenko, S.V. Sliusarenko, V.V. Bilkevich, K.Y. Leskiv
In the conditions of the strengthened technogenic loading on the environment, one of the priority and actual directions is the research of the maintenance of heavy metals in the soil are the plants are grown in separate biogeocenoses.
The research aimed to study the migration of mobile forms of heavy metals (Cadmium, Plumbum, Mercury, and Zinc) in the trophic chain system: soil-plant under local human-made load. Also, to explore the peculiarities of their accumulation in the ground, entry into the vegetative part of plants, and develop measures to prevent the migration.
The experiment was conducted at Zubra LLC. Agricultural lands are directly adjacent to the Mykolayiv Cement and Mining Plant territory, which is a powerful source of emissions of toxic chemical elements, the content of which exceeds the MAL (the maximum allowable level) for all investigated ingredients. In scientific and economic research. We studied heavy metals' migration in the soil-plant (feed) system. Therefore, our research object was soil samples, forage crops, which determined heavy metals' content. In some micro field experiments, soil contamination with heavy metals was modeled, reflecting the range of real loads in the study area. Ameliorants of organic and inorganic nature were applied to the soil contaminated with heavy metals to mitigate pollutants' adverse effects.
A high level of heavy metals was registered in the soils of Zubra LLC surveyed by us. It should be noted that the content of toxic metals in the studied ground samples decreases with increasing distance from the source of human-made pollution, i.e., the migration of heavy metals following the laws of their distribution in the horizontal direction. The study of acid-base conditions (pH) of soils indicates a violation of acid-base balance. Our research shows that the highest level of mobile forms of heavy metals is registered in conditions of low winds, high humidity, and fog. The decrease in the level of mobile forms of heavy metals in the soil is directly related to the vegetative period of plant development, during which heavy metals migrate intensively into the vegetative part of plants. The coefficient of biological absorption of heavy metals by plants often exceeds one. In micro field experiments, ground contamination with Cadmium, Lead, and Zinc ions at concentrations of 2 and 3 MAL were simulated. It is established that antagonistic and synergistic interactions of toxicants largely determine the accumulation of heavy metals in plants' vegetative part.
To mitigate the adverse effects of pollutants, we applied ameliorants of inorganic and organic nature. Among the used ameliorants, the most effective was the zeolite of the Sokyrnytsia deposit. The introduction of which into the soil leads to a significant reduction in plants' accumulation of heavy metals. Under the influence of zeolite, the concentration of Lead and Zinc's mobile forms in the green mass of corn was within.
Promising further research is developing measures for the preliminary transfer of essential metals in the food chain: soil-plant – feed – animal – products – humans, testing, experimental verification of the effectiveness of measures to attract environmentally friendly products produced and grown in local processing facilities.
Keywords: monitoring, trophic chains, soil samples, pollutants, adsorbents, ameliorants of organic and inorganic nature, accumulation coefficient of heavy metals
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