Minimization of environmental risks in crops cultivation
Environmental risks are urgent problems of today that require an immediate search for ways to minimize them. The leading cause of environmental risks is the anthropogenic factor associated with the economic development of society. Critical is the study of risks in agricultural production, on the development of which depends on the country's food security. This is because agricultural activities are closely intertwined with natural and climatic conditions. At the same time, agricultural enterprises also harm the environment, resulting in catastrophic climate change. The main environmental risks of agricultural production are identified: non-compliance with environmental standards; the emergence of epidemiological threats; risks of unfavorable natural and climatic conditions in the form of floods, fires, snow elements, and avalanches, icing, and risks of soil erosion (landslides); use of plant protection products; use of GMOs, reduction of production productivity through the introduction of environmental processes. One way to minimize environmental risks in agriculture is to optimize the structure of sown areas of crops. A model for optimizing an economic problem with two linear objective functions and a linear system of constraints is developed. The model contains a compromise solution on two indicators (gross output at comparable prices in 2016 (in order to reduce inflation) and the accumulation of carbon dioxide by cereals in terms of humidification subzones of the Forest-Steppe. Implementation of the optimization problem results will allow increasing the economic and environmental effects of grain production without unnecessary investments. Thus, the increase in the value of gross output in the region with specialization of grain production is 869,030 thousand UAH, and at the same time, the growth of CO2 accumulation in the amount of 3,714,918 tons, and taking into account the livestock industry to optimize the structure of grain crops can get an additional 477,297 thousand UAH VP and 1989363 tons of CO2.