Modern technologies used in compact installations of complex treatment of household wastewater, and their sanitary protection zone
The purpose is a scientific substantiation of the criteria for evaluating compact sewage systems for domestic wastewater treatment and the size of sanitary protection zones for them. Materials of more than 30 manufacturers (Ukraine, Lithuania, the Czech Republic, Poland, Germany) of compact sewage plants for biological treatment of domestic wastewater, in particular, those designed for wastewater treatment of infectious diseases hospitals and TB dispensaries are studied. The results of the conducted instrumental researches on the efficiency of their work, air pollution and noise at the border of the sanitary protection zone are analyzed. It is noted that the characteristic feature of such structures is the factory production of tanks, tightness and lack of specific odor in the area of their location. It is revealed that the manufacturers of compact installations of complex domestic wastewater treatment offer different: methods for purification, disinfection and additional treatment of wastewater and their sediments; measures to prevent air pollution; design features and materials of tanks that make them resistant to corrosion processes and different temperatures; technologies for the manufacture of tanks; aeration systems; characteristics of automatic equipment, etc. Based on the research, the criteria for assessing such facilities and the size of sanitary protection zones for them are substantiated. A comparative analysis of current regulations of Ukraine and Lithuania revealed significant differences in the regulated requirements for the size of sanitary protection zones and the composition of treated wastewater.